Trinidad donkey virus A strain of

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

Trinidad rabies A form of rabies following the bite of an infected vampire bat, most commonly Desmodus rotundus murinus. Clinically the infection takes the form of an acute ascending myelitis. The disease occurs in cattle in Trinidad and S America, whose blood is the normal food of the bat. Humans are attacked only if the livestock are shut away.

Triniti virus An unclassified virus. Isolated from adult mosquitoes of Trichoprosopon sp in Trinidad. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

trisodium phosphonoformate An antiviral agent. A pyrophosphate analog that is a non-competitive inhibitor of the viral DNA polymerase. Inhibits both herpesviruses and Hepatitis B virus. Used to treat cytomegalovirus infections of the eye; effective against acyclovir-resistant viruses. Synonym: foscarnet.

Helgstrand E et al (1978) Science 201, 819 Jacobson MA et al (1991) J Infect Dis 163, 1348

Trivittatus virus (TVTV) A strain of California encephalitis virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the California encephalitis virus serogroup. Isolated from Aedes trivittatas mosquitoes in N Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Florida, Alabama and Minnesota, USA. Probably not a significant cause of human disease.

tRNA Abbreviation for transfer RNA.

Trocará virus An unclassified virus isolated from culicine mosquitoes in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with human disease.

Trombetas virus (TRMV) A serotype of Anopheles A virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Anopheles A serogroup.

tropism The movement response of a virus toward particular cells or tissues in which it replicates, e.g. Rabies virus has tropism for nerve cells (is neurotropic). Tropism may be modified by proteases.

Nagai Y (1993) Trends Microbiol 1, 81

Trubanaman virus (TRUV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae, related to Gan Gan, Mapputta and Maprik viruses. Isolated from mosquitoes, Anopheles annulipes. Antibodies are found in humans, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, wallabies, etc. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

T.RVL.II 573 virus A strain of Tacaribe virus in the genus Arenavirus.

trypsin An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds on the carboxyl side trypsin

of arginine, lysine and aminoethyl cys-teine residues.

tryptic peptide A peptide formed from a protein by the action of trypsin. It has arginine, lysine or aminoethyl cysteine at the C-terminus.

ts mutants Abbreviation for temperature sensitive mutants.

Tsuruse virus (TSUV) A strain of Tete virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Tete virus group. Isolated from a bird, Cyanopica cyanus, in Japan. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

3T3-Swiss albino cells and 3T6 cells (CCL 92) and (CCL 96) Two of a number of cell lines obtained by repeated passage of random-bred Swiss mouse embryo cells. The first number indicates the passage interval, the second x l000 the number of cells plated per 20cm2. Passage at low multiplicity resulted in 3T3 cells, which have not lost contact inhibition and cease dividing at low cell density. They are therefore valuable for detecting the transforming abilities of oncogenic viruses. Passage at a high cell density resulted in 3Tl2 cells, which have lost contact inhibition and grow to a high cell density.

Todaro CT and Green H (1963) J Cell Biol 17, 299

TT virus (TTV) A non-enveloped single-stranded circular DNA virus, genome length about 3.8kb, which is unclassified. Named from the initials (TT) of a patient who developed non-A, B, C, D, E or G transfusion-related hepatitis. Representational difference analysis of DNA was originally used to isolate a clone from serum comparing before and after transfusion. Using specific primers to screen sera by PCR it was found that more than 90% of some human populations are infected, and the virus is distributed world-wide. However, multiple variants are found in the human population, and also in non-human primates. It seems likely that transmission may occur by the fecal-oral route as well as parenterally. Many of the TT viruses appear to be recombinants. So far TTV has not been associated with any human or non-human primate disease. See Sanban virus.

Davidson F et al (1999) J Infect Dis 179, 1070 Mushahwar IK et al (1999) Proc Natl Acad Sci 96, 3177

Khudyakov YE et al (2000) J Virol 74, 2990 Verschoor EJ et al (1999) J Gen Virol 80, 2491 Worobey M (2000) J Virol 74, 7666

TTV-like minivirus (TLMV) Name given to variants of TTV with a genome DNA length of 2.9 kb in comparison with TTV which has a genome length of 3.8 kb. Share sequences in common with TTV. Found in both human and non-human primate sera. Their significance and possible association with disease is not known.

Okamoto H et al (2000) Virology 277, 368 Takahashi K et al (2000) Arch Virol 145, 979

Tucunduba virus (TUCV) A serotype of Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunya-virus.

Tucurui virus A serotype of Anopheles A virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from anopheline mosquitoes in the Amazon region of Brazil.

Tula virus (TULV) A species in the genus Hantavirus isolated from European common voles, Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis. There is evidence of human infection in Moravia.

Vapalahti O et al (1996) J Gen Virol 77, 3063

tumor necrosis factor (TNF) A cytokine produced by macrophages in response to infection. Preferentially kills tumor cells and causes necrosis of some transplanted tumors in mice. Human TNF-a is a protein of 157 amino acids.

tumor suppressor genes Genes that encode a product which negatively regulates the cell cycle.

tumor viruses Synonym for oncogenic viruses.

Tumor virus X (TVX) A species in the genus Parvovirus. Isolated from a line of human amnion cells originating from a Hamburg laboratory.

Hallauer C et al (1971) Arch Virol 35, 80

Tumucumaque virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus isolated from phle-botomine flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with human disease.

TUNEL assay Terminal transferase-medi-ated dUTP nick end labeling. An assay for DNA degradation, e.g. in apoptosis.

tunicamycin A compound which blocks the formation of N-glycosidic protein-carbohydrate linkages.

Tunis virus (TUNV) A serotype of Uukuniemi virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

tupaia virus (TUPV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus, isolated from a captive tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, in Heidelberg, Germany. Antigenically related to vesiculovirus.

tupaiid herpesvirus 1 (TuHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Originally isolated from a spontaneously degenerating lung tissue culture from an apparently normal tree shrew, Tupaia glis. Appears to be a common and silent infection of tree shrews as it can often be isolated from mouth swabs and from cell cultures of various organs. Replicates in a tree shrew fibroblast cell line. Another strain was isolated from a malignant lymphosarcoma in an 8-year-old tree shrew, a third from a Hodgkin's sarcoma in a 9-year-old tree shrew, and four others from moribund animals aged 4-11 years. They are probably all strains of the original virus isolate, as they share close DNA sequence homology. It has proved difficult to induce malignant lymphomas experimentally in tree shrews with this virus. Probably non-pathogenic for tree shrews, but produces lymphoid granulomas experimentally in rabbit lung and spleen. Synonym: tree shrew herpesvirus.

Bahr U et al (1999) Virus Res 60, 123 Darai G et al (1979) J Gen Virol 43, 541

turbot herpesvirus Synonym for pleuro-nectid herpesvirus.

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