Walleye herpesvirus See percid herpesvirus

walrus calicivirus (WCV) An unassigned virus in the family Caliciviridae, isolated from the feces of the walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, collected off sea ice in the Chukchi Sea.

Smith AW and Boyt PM (1990) J Zoo Wildl Med 21, 3

Smith AW et al (1983) J Wildl Dis 19, 86

Wanowrie virus (WANV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from the tick, Hyalomma marginatum isaaci, and the mosquito, Culex fatigans, in India, Sri Lanka and Egypt. Has been isolated from the brain of a patient with hepatitis and hemorrhagic disease of the gut. Pathogenic for newborn but not for adult mice. Replicates with CPE in BHK21 cells.

Khorshed M et al (1976) Ind J Med Res 61, 557

Warrego virus (WARV) A species in the genus Orbivirus. With Mitchell River virus forms the Warrego virus serogroup. Isolated from flies of Culicoides sp in Queensland, Australia. Antibodies found in wallabies, kangaroos and cattle. Has been isolated from cases of kangaroo blindness. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Warthin-Finkeldey cells Syncytial lym-phoid cells found in measles virus infection in the human tonsil, Peyer's patches, lymphoid tissue of the appendix, lymph nodes and spleen.

wart-hog disease virus Synonym for

African swine fever virus.

wart virus See Papillomavirus.

wasting disease A chronic transmissible wasting disease of captive mule deer and elk which resembles scrapie of sheep. Presumably caused by a transmissible prion, but the exact relationship to other transmissible spongiform encephalo-pathies is not known.

Williams ES and Young S (1993) Vet Pathol 30, 36

water buffalo herpesvirus Synonym for Bubaline herpesvirus 1.

Wavre virus Described originally as a picor-navirus which agglutinated erythrocytes of several species including monkeys, guinea pig, swine and chicken. However, it is probably a strain of Porcine parvo-virus. Replicates with CPE in pig kidney cell cultures and was originally isolated from a pig kidney cell monolayer from an apparently normal pig.

Cartwright SF et al (1969) J Comp Pathol 78, 37 Huygelen C and Peetermans J (1968) Arch Ges Virusforsch 20, 26

WB virus A strain of parainfluenza virus type 5. Isolated in WI-38 cells from two patients with infectious hepatitis.

Liebhaber H et al (1965) J Exp Med 122, 1135, 1151

WC3 virus A strain of bovine rotavirus that has been evaluated in clinical trials in infants in Philadelphia, USA as a candidate human vaccine.

Clark HF et al (1986) Am J Dis Child 140, 350

WE virus A strain of Lymphocytic chorio-meningitis virus (LCM) in the genus Arenavirus.

WEE virus Abbreviation for Western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

Weldona virus (WELV) A strain of Tete virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Tete antigenic virus group.

Wesselsbron virus (WESSV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Yellow fever virus group. Epizootic in sheep causing abortion and death of lambs and pregnant ewes. Hemorrhages and jaundice occur in the ewes and meningoencephalitis in the fetuses. May cause abortion in cattle. Infects humans causing fever and muscular pains. Transmission is by mosquito bites. Found in S Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Cameroon, Nigeria, Uganda, Madagascar, Botswana and Thailand. Injection of suckling mice i.c. causes encephalitis. In rabbits and guinea pigs it causes abortions. Replicates in lamb kidney cell cultures and in eggs.

Western blotting The transfer of proteins which have been separated on a poly-acrylamide gel to an immobilizing matrix, commonly nitrocellulose. The proteins on the matrix can be probed with, for example, specific antibodies to identify a particular protein species. See Southern blotting.

Towbin H et al (1979) Proc Natl Acad Sci 76, 4350

Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. Maintained in the wild as an endemic harmless infection of birds and mosquitoes, especially Culex tarsalis, but Culex stigmatosoma, Aedes melanimon and Aedes dorsalis are also vectors. Man and horses are infected by mosquito bites. Disease produced is similar to that caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) but milder. Mortality in horses 20-30% and in humans 10%. Sequelae are uncommon. Virus found in most of USA (except the eastern seaboard), southern Canada and S America as far as Argentina. Injection i.c. causes meningoencephalomyelitis in a range of rodents, monkeys, rabbits, pigs and birds. Hamsters, mice and guinea pigs can be infected by i.p. and i.m. injection. Virus can be propagated in eggs and cell cultures of many types in which it causes a CPE. RNA sequence analysis shows that most of the WEE virus genome is closely related to that of EEE virus, but the genes encoding virion coat proteins and the 3' untranslated region are closely similar to those of Sindbis virus. It is highly likely that WEE virus arose as a recombinant between EEE and Sindbis viruses.

Hahn CS et al (1988) Proc Natl Acad Sci 85, 5997 Reisen WK and Monath TP (1989) In The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, vol. 5, edited by TP Monath. Boca Raton: CRC Press, p. 90

Strauss JH and Strauss EG (1994) Microbiol Rev 58, 491

West Nile virus (WNV) A species in the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup. First isolated in 1937 in Uganda. A silent or short febrile infection in humans especially children, but a more severe disease which can be fatal occurs in elderly people. There is a short incubation period of a few days followed by fever, headache and myalgia. A rash occurs in about half the cases. After 3-6 days there is usually complete recovery. Occurs in Egypt, Uganda, S Africa, Israel, India, the south of France and, since 1999, in the USA. There are strain differences between viruses from India and the Far East and those from Africa, Europe and the Middle East. The virus that appeared in New York in 1999 was phylogeneti-cally similar to an isolate from geese in Israel. After causing more than 60 clinical cases with seven deaths in older people in New York, and the deaths of many crows and other birds in the New York region, the virus overwintered and returned in 2000 to cause 18 clinical cases with two deaths in older people. The strain that moved to New York appears to be particularly virulent for birds, but has also caused deaths in horses and has infected a variety of other mammals. Experimentally, West Nile virus causes encephalitis on i.c. injection into rodents, chicks and rhesus monkeys. Virus is propagated in eggs causing plaques on the CAM and in cell culture of chicks and many mammals as well as mosquitoes. Birds are probably the natural host, the virus being spread to humans by mosquitoes of many different species. No vaccine is available for human use, and control is by use of insecticides and personal protection against mosquitoes.

Lanciotti RS et al (1999) Science 286, 2333

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