Yaba monkey tumor virus YMTV A

species in the genus Yatapoxvirus causing benign fibrous tumors of the head and limbs of rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, which may ulcerate before regressing. First seen in captive rhesus monkeys in 1958 in Yaba, Nigeria. Natural host probably an African primate, with transmission by insect vectors in the wild. Workers in contact with infected animals often become infected and have local disease, with fever in some cases. Experimental infection in humans causes a small nodule which regresses. Virus genome DNA is 145kb long; G+C content 32.5%; density of DNA 1.69g/ml in CsCl. Inactivated after 1 h at 56°C or by pH 3 at room temperature. Replicates on the CAM and in primary human kidney, Cercopithecus kidney and MK2 cells.

Rouhandeh H (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1971

Yaba-1 virus (Y1V) A serotype of M'Poko virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Antigenically related to the Turlock virus serogroup. First isolated in 1962 in Nigeria. A very similar virus, Lednice virus, was isolated near the small town of Lednice in southern Moravia from the tick, Culex modestus. Resistant to high pH. Replicates in goose and duck embryo cell cultures without CPE. Pathogenic for newborn mice. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Marhoul Z et al (1976) Acta Virol, Prague 20, 499

Yaba-7 virus (Y7V) A serotype of Akabane virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Simbu virus serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes, Mansonia africana.

Yacaaba virus (YACV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from Aedes vigilax in New South Wales, Australia.

Yaounde virus (YAOV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus group. Isolated from Culex nebulosus in Cameroon. Has also been isolated in the Central African Republic.

Robin Y (1970) Annual Report Centre Collaborateur OMS de Reference pour les Arbovirus en Afrique de l'Ouest, Dakar, Senegal

Yaquina Head virus (YHV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Great Island complex of the Kemerovo serogroup. Isolated from Ixodes uriae in Oregon, USA. The same or a closely related virus has been isolated in Alaska. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Yata virus (YATAV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from the mosquito, Mansonia uniformis, in the Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Yatapoxvirus A genus in the family Poxviridae, containing two species: Tanapox virus and Yaba monkey tumor virus. Virions are brick-shaped, 300 x 250 x 200nm. Genome DNA about 146kb long, G+C content 32.5%. The two species differ according to restriction enzyme analysis. Probably maintained in the wild by insect transmission between various monkey species.

Yellow fever virus (YFV)

Yellow fever virus (YFV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. Jungle yellow fever is an infection of wild primates in forests of Africa and S America. Yellow fever is endemic in Africa, south of the Sahara and as far south as northern Zimbabwe. Epidemics have occurred in Sudan and Ethiopia. Spreads occasionally from S America to Central America and Trinidad. In the African tree tops the virus is spread by the mosquito, Aedes africanus and A. simpsoni, carrying infection from the monkeys to humans in the villages. In S America Haemagogus sp are the main vectors in the sylvan cycle. In the urban area Aedes aegypti is the vector carrying the human disease. The virus may be maintained in mosquitoes by transovarial transmission. Incubation period is 3-6 days. Infection in humans may be inapparent (in natives) or a fulminating, often fatal infection, with high fever, albuminuria, jaundice, black vomit and other hemorrhages. In children it may be difficult to diagnose. Macaque monkeys, marmosets and howler monkeys develop an illness similar to humans, and may die after experimental inoculation. In most African primates there is only viremia. The virus is fatal to hedgehogs. Replicates in cultures of chick and mouse embryo cells and after adaptation will infect eggs. The attenuated 17D strain was obtained by passage in chick embryo cells, and is produced in embryonated eggs; it gives few reactions when used as a vaccine. It gives protection for several years, and has been given to more than 200 million people. Urban yellow fever is best controlled by elimination of Aedes aegypti. The endemic prevalence of Dengue and other related viruses may prevent spread to Asia, because immunity to dengue affords cross-protection against yellow fever. Synonyms: fiebre amarilla virus; flavivirus febricus.

Chambers TJ et al (1990) Annu Rev Microbiol 44, 649

Chang G-JJ et al (1995) J Virol 69, 5773 Monath TP (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1979

Yellow fever virus serogroup A group of nine serologically related viruses in the genus Flavivirus. They are: Banzi, Boubai, Edge Hill, Jugra, Saboya, Sepik, Uganda S, Wesselbron and Yellow fever.

yellowtail ascites virus A birnavirus isolated from cultured Seriola quinqueradi-ates.

Nakajima K and Hara T (1985) Fish Pathol 19, 231

YLD Yaba-like disease.

Yogue virus (YOGV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from a bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, in Senegal. Related antigenically to Kasokero virus. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Yoka poxvirus (YKV) An unassigned virus in the family Poxviridae. Isolated from Aedes (Stegomyia) simpsoni in the Central African Republic.

Sureau P (1972) Institut Pasteur Bangui Annual Report, 16

Yokose virus (YOKV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Ntaya virus serogroup.

Yonban virus A virus related to TTV, but phylogenetically distinct. Disease potential is unknown.

Erker JC et al (1999) J Gen Virol 80, 1743

Yucaipa virus See Avian paramyxovirus 2.

Yug Bogdanovac virus (YBV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated from Phlebotomus perfiliewi in Serbia. Not reported to cause disease.

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