Natural Treatment for Chlamydia Infection

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia

Is Chlamydia easily curable? The Answer is a big Yes! Chlamydia is one of the sexually transmitted diseases with proven treatment methods. In fact, there are two main treatment options available both of which have guaranteed results: Conventional medicine and natural medicine. These treatment options And lots of other previously unknown facts about Chlamydia have been explained at great length in this eBook. The Essential guide to Cure Chlamydia unveils the mystery of Chlamydia and methodically presents all the important bits of information that you should know about Chlamydia. The Banish Chlamydia Book tackles the sensitive subject of Chlamydia from the perspective of a professional and presents you with a goldmine of information and facts in a way that has never been done before.

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia Summary


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Chlamydia trachomatis

Anal Stenosis House Flap

Chlamydia infection is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The organism can cause proctitis similar to that of CD. Untreated disease may become ulcerated causing fistulas, abscesses, or rectal stricture, which may be misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is usually made by serology. Treatment consists of oral tetracycline or erythromycin, 500 mg 4 times a day for 3 weeks. Rectal strictures are primarily treated medically in case of failure, surgical resection with coloanal anastomosis may be required.

Conjunctivitis And Dacryocystitis Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis in the newborn infant usually is due to chemical and mechanical irritation caused by the instillation of silver nitrate drops or ointment into the eye in order to prevent gonorrheal ophthalmia. Chemical conjunctivitis differs from infective forms in that it becomes apparent almost immediately after the instillation. The most common causes of infectious conjunctivitis in descending order of frequency are Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus spp., inclusion conjunctivitis caused by groups A and B Streptococcus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, herpes simplex virus, echoviruses, and Mycoplasma hominis (18). Clostridia and peptostreptococci were also implicated as probable causes of neonatal conjunctivitis (19). Because anaerobic bacteria have been recovered from children (22) and adults (23,24) suffering...

Background to pneumonia

In the newborn, organisms from the mother's genital tract, such as Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacilli, group B beta-haemolytic Streptococcus and increasingly, Chlamydia trachomatis, are the most common pathogens. In infancy respiratory viruses, particularly respiratory syncytial virus, are the most frequent cause, but Pneumococcus, Haemophilus and, less commonly, Staphylococcus aureus are also important. In older children, viruses become less frequent pathogens and bacterial infection is more important. Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common cause of pneumonia in the school-age child. Bordatella pertussis can present with pneumonia as well as with classical whooping cough, even in children who have been fully immunised.

Antibacterial activity

Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are broad-spectrum antibiotics with activity against Gram-positive and especially Gram-negative organisms. They are also active against some anaerobes and Chlamydia and Mycoplasma species. Since their launch, quinolones have been widely used, and this has led to the emergence of resistance in some bacterial species. This has been seen in the GUM setting, where in some geographical areas in the UK the increasing amount of gonorrhoea resistant to ciprofloxacin has led to its no longer being considered as a first-line empirical treatment in local guidelines for this condition.

Choice Of Antimicrobial Agents

Doxycycline is added to most regimens in the treatment of pelvic infections to provide therapy for chlamydia and mycoplasma. Penicillin is still the drug of choice for bacteremia caused by non-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. However, other agents should be used for the therapy of bacteremia caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

Managed Care Organizations

HMOs are expected to play a major role in the delivery of preventive services (e.g., screening for disease) for several reasons (CDC 1995a). HMOs are rapidly becoming a major source of health care for most Americans, have historically included preventive services (e.g., screening), are responsible for defined or enrolled populations, and have enthusiastically embraced the recommendations of the USPSTF to define preventive services benefits (Woolf et al. 1996). Moreover, the preventive services measures developed by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) to track health plan performance, the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS), partly were based on the USPSTF recommendations. Specific measures include indicators of plan-specific effectiveness of care with respect to screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, diabetic eye disease, hypertension, and chlamydia (NCQA 1996).

Discussion Challenges To Effective Health Promotion

The Government has set specific targets for sexual health promotion (for example teenage pregnancy and STIs), and has identified 'high-risk' groups, such as teenagers, gay men, young adults and black and ethnic minority groups (DH, 1991). However, one of the results of this is that professionals fail to recognise sexual health promotion needs and opportunities in other population groups, such as older newly single heterosexuals. In addition, some government public health strategies, such as Chlamydia screening, have excluded men, and this has been criticised by Hart et al. (2002), who question the wisdom of such a policy, as men have the same risk of infection from Chlamydia as women.

Grampositive bacteria

Rickettsia Like Organism

Fig. 20.10. (and Opposite) (a) Chlamydia-like inclusion bodies (arrows) in the digestive tubules of Crassostrea virginica. H & E, x 160. (b) Different developmental stages of a filamentous Chlamydia-like infection of the digestive tubules of Crassostrea virginica. Note rupture of the basal membrane, rather than the apical membrane, by one colony. H & E, x 630. (c) Heavy tubule epithelium infection by Rickettsia-like organisms (dense spheres) in Crassostrea virginica. Note massive hypertrophy of some infected cells (arrows). H & E, x 160. (d) Rickettsia-like colony in a tubule epithelial cell of the mussel Mytilus edulis. H & E, x 250. Chlamydia-tike organisms

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Gonorrhea

The high penicillin resistance, a single dose of 250 mg intramuscular ceftriaxone (Rocephin) followed by 100 mg oral doxycycline bid for 7 days may be used as a first choice. Recurrence rates may be high (up to 35 ), therefore, the patient is instructed to return for follow-up for smears and cultures to confirm remission. Because patients with gonorrhea may have associated chlamydial infection, treatment for chlamydia is instituted as well.

Bacterial Infections Bacteria of Bivalvia Linn 1758

Rickettsia-, Chlamydia- and Mycoplasma-like organisms Bacteria belonging to the orders Rickettsiales, Chlamydiales and Mycoplasmatales (class Mollicutes) infect a wide range of bivalves and crustaceans (Table 20.2). With certain exceptions, described below, Rickettsiaceae are Gram-negative, intracytoplasmic, membrane-bound, oval to rod-shaped bacilli, measuring 0.3-0.6 mm x 0.8-2.0 mm. Chlamydiales are also Gram-negative, but have a complex developmental cycle, multiplying within cytoplasmic vacuoles and producing small, rigid-walled, infectious stages (elementary bodies). Larger, non-infectious forms (reticulate or initial bodies) have flexible walls and divide by fission, producing intermediate or ellipsoid bodies. Chlamydias are coccoid or pleomorphic and generally measure 0.2-1.5 mm in diameter. Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs), are tentatively associated with the Mollicutes as small (0.3-0.8 mm), wall-less, prokaryotes, which vary in shape from spherical to filamentous. Generally...

Perinatal Infection

Rubella Virus

The immediate and long-term effects of perinatal infection are a major problem throughout the world. Perinatal infection is relatively common among the over 4 million births per year in the United States but the incidence is dependent upon the organism. One percent of newborn infants excrete cytomegalovirus. Fifteen percent are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis one-third develop conjunctivitis and one-sixth, pneumonia. One to eight per 1,000 live births develop bacterial sepsis. In utero or perinatal infection with herpes simplex virus, Toxoplasma gondii and varicella-zoster virus occurs in about 1 per 1,000 live births and the sequelae may be severe. In-utero acquired infection may result in resorption of the embryo, abortion, stillbirth, malformation, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, and the numerous untoward sequelae associated with chronic infection. Infection acquired at or soon after birth may lead to death or persistent postnatal infection. Some infections may be...

Mixed Infections Involving Anaerobic BLPB

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a polymicrobial infection (191-193) involving in most cases numerous isolates, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Enterobacteriaceae, and AGNB (B. fragilis, P. bivia, and P. disiens). All of the above organisms (except for C. trachomatis) are capable of producing BL. In a summary of 36 studies published from 1973 to 1985, Eschenbach found BLPB in 1483 (22 ) of 6637 specimens obtained from obstetric and gynecologic infections (191). The predominant BLPB were Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, B. fragilis group and pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. The increase in the failure rate of penicillin in eradicating these infections is an indirect proof of their importance (192-194).

Screening in the Community

Public Health Nursing Pictures

In recent years, screening has been more commonly associated with the control of chronic conditions such as heart disease (e.g., blood pressure and cholesterol), cancer (e.g., mammography, Pap test, and testicular examination), and congenital abnormalities (screening among newborns). However, important applications of screening for the prevention and control of infectious diseases have a long history and current importance in traditional public health practice. For example, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended selective screening in high risk populations for several infectious conditions (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus HIV , tuberculosis, chlamydia, rubella, syphilis, and gonorrhea) in the context of a clinical periodic health examination (USPSTF 1996). As with chronic conditions, early detection and treatment of cases of infectious disease improves the clinical outcome of persons affected by disease. In addition, early detection and successful treatment...

Acute Otitis Media Microbiology

Other organisms that less frequently cause AOM include group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Staphylococcus aureus, Turicella otitidis, Alloiococcus otitis Chlamydia spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and various aerobic and faculatative gram-negative bacilli (7) including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. Gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci are implicated as dominant etiologic agents in otitis media of the neonate. However, even among very young infants, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae constitute the most common etiologic agents. Viruses were recovered in the middle-ear fluid of 14.3 of children (8).

Acute Salpingitis And Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pathogenesis and Microbiology

The recovery of N. gonorrhoeae from the upper genital tract is variable. Many species of aerobes and anaerobes that are related to the normal vaginal flora can be isolated. Chlamydiae and mycoplasmae also have been implicated. It is generally suspected that sexually transmitted pathogens paves the way to polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic PID and that the cervical bacteria travel through the endometrium and salpinges to the TOA junction (30). Presumably, it explains the rarity of pelvic infections during the full-term pregnancy. The isolation of gonococci from the endocervix does not necessarily account for upper genital tract disease. Moreover, the eradication of gonococci may not be an adequate treatment for acute salpingitis. The morbidity and sequelae of both gonococcal and nongonococcal salpingitis may be attributed to repeated ascending infection by the aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that are secondary invaders. C. trachomatis has also received attention as an etiologic agent...

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PID is usually the result of ascending infection from the endocervix, causing endometritis, salpingitis, parametritis, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscess and or pelvic peritonitis. Sexually transmitted infections, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are identified as causative agents. Mycoplasma genitalium anaerobes and other organisms may also be implicated (Bevan et al., 1995). This takes the form of peri-hepatitis and is generally chlamydial or gonococ-cal in origin. Laparoscopy reveals oedema of the liver capsule and adhesions to the peritoneum. Clinical symptoms and signs lack sensitivity and specificity (the positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis is 65-90 per cent compared with laparoscopic diagnosis) (Bevan et al., 1995). Microbiological tests for gonorrhoea and Chlamydia in the lower genital tract are recommended, as a positive result strongly supports the diagnosis of PID (Bevan et al., 1995 Morcos et al., 1993). An elevated erythrocyte...

Breaking T and B Cell Tolerance

With an antigen that mimics peptide motifs of the targeted self antigen (Bachmaier et al. 1999). Thus, in normal mice bacterial DNA motifs triggered the myocarditis only when co-administered with an altered self-peptide, derived from chlamydia. These data suggest that immunization against antigens that are structurally related to self-antigens are essential for the induction of autoimmunity. This concept is further supported by functional and structural analysis of T cell epitopes of infectious agents and potential self-antigens. Chlamydia peptides can share functional similarities with peptides expressed by mammalian heart muscle, while other infectious agents share important peptide sequences with potential self-antigens such as myelin basic protein. This aspect is especially significant since molecular mimicry does not require molecular identity. Studies with altered peptide ligands have shown that induction of cytokine production or T cell proliferation requires only poor...

Recent Sexual History

'Was this person male or female ' This will guide your questioning and assist you in the risk assessment. Please remember that if the client is female and having sex with another woman this doesn't necessarily mean that they are not at risk that other woman may have had male relationships in the past and may have acquired chlamydia, genital warts or HIV. The use of shared sex toys may also be a risk factor.

Neonatal Infections

The incidence of infection in the fetus and newborn infant is high. As many as 2 of fetuses are infected in utero and up to 10 of infants are infected during delivery or in the first few months of life. The predominant microorganisms known to cause these infections are cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia, Group B Streptococcus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and anaerobic bacteria. All of these agents can colonize or infect the mother and infect the fetus or newborn either intrauterinely or during the passage through the birth canal. Although anaerobic bacteria cause a small number of these infections, the conditions predisposing to anaerobic infections in newborns are similar to those associated with aerobic microorganisms. Furthermore, the true incidence of anaerobic infections may be underestimated because techniques for the recovery and isolation of anaerobic bacteria are rarely used, or are inadequate....

Tropical Ulcers

LGV is caused by one of the serovars (L1, L2 or L3) of Chlamydia trachomatis. The primary skin lesion may well go unnoticed, and is described as a painless papule, pustule or erosion. These organisms are lymphotropic and, in the secondary phase, the main symptoms of LGV are associated with the lymph nodes. The most common sign is tender inguinal and or femoral lym-phadenopathy. Buboes may form and there may be chronic ulceration and fistula formation. Acute haemorrhagic proctitis may also occur. Since 2003 a series of outbreaks of LGV have been reported in European cities (HPA, 2005). These have been among men who have sex with men (MSM), and most cases present with proctitis.


Bacteria, viruses, chlamydia, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites, and numerous noninfectious agents and metabolic diseases may induce conjunctivitis. Early etiological diagnosis of acute bacterial conjunctivitis is of utmost importance because of the potential of rapid development that may cause irreversible ocular damage. Arriving at a specific diagnosis is important for the selection of appropriate therapy.

Bartholins abscess

The ducts of Bartholin's glands open bilaterally at the introitus, and can become blocked and subsequently infected. As part of the examination, the site of the glands is observed for swelling and any reports of pain by the patient are elicited (Anderson et al., 2005). Abscess formation can occur secondary to gonorrhoea or chlamydia however, it is not always associated with a sexually transmitted organism. Bartholin's abscess should be observed for purulent discharge, and an additional swab sample obtained for microscopy culture and sensitivity (MC&S). If the abscess is non-discharging the patient will need to be referred directly to gynaecology for excision and drainage (Mitchell, 2004).

Female circumcision

In preparation for gonorrhoea and Chlamydia samples, a larger cotton-tipped swab or 'mop' is gently used to sweep away excess mucus from the cervix. Usually one mop is sufficient, but it is useful to have an extra one ready to hand for heavier cervical discharge blood. The gonorrhoea sample is collected first, using the same type of swab as for vaginal samples. The tip of the swab is gently inserted into the cervical os. All aspects of the cervical opening should be fully sampled using a rotational movement and the swab removed. The sample can be applied thinly to a plain slide for Gram stain and microscopy and inoculated into a selective medium for culture and sensitivity tests on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Again, a gentle sweeping action is used to ensure the agar remains intact. A cotton-tipped cervical swab is supplied with the appropriate Chlamydia testing kit. The tip of the swab is gently inserted into the cervical os and then agitated in a circular motion for at least 10 seconds...

Anorectal Disease

A variety of classic venereal diseases can produce anorectal ulcerations. Diagnosis and treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoea proctitis is similar in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Syphilis may have an atypical presentation in HIV-infected subjects, and serologic diagnosis is affected by the presence of immune deficiency. Chlamydia is prevalent in sexually active groups. The frequency of chancroid, caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, in HIV-infected patients is unknown. Rectal spirochetosis has been recognized in homosexual men with or without HIV infection (Nielsen et al, 1983). The infection usually is asymptomatic and an incidental finding on examination.


Stains used routinely for paraffin-embedded tissue sections (Howard and Smith, 1983 Bucke, 1989) include haematoxylin and eosin, which stain nuclei red (except for the diffuse chromatin of mature ovocytes (C.A. Farley, NOAA-DNR Oxford Laboratory, Oxford, Maryland, USA, 1988 personal communication)), along with mucin, cartilage and some Gram-negative bacteria (including RLOs and Chlamydia-like organisms). Gram's methods are used to detect bacteria and various modifications are recommended, e.g. the Brown and Brenn method, which stains Gram-positive organisms blue (e.g. Nocardia, Gaffkemia, Micrococcus) and Gram-negative organisms red, while tissues appear yellow. The Giemsa method stains Rickettsia and Chlamydia parasites blue-black, nuclei are blue and other structures are pink or light blue. Grocott's modified Gomori chromic acid, methenamine silver-nitrate stain (Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS)), is recommended for fungi (Bucke, 1989), which stain black (as do Gram-positive...

Infection Acquired

Chemical Conjunctivitis

Trachoma inclusion conjunctivitis (TRIC or chlamydial conjunctivitis) usually does not become clinically apparent before the 6th day of life. This shows a dense white membrane which developed over a period of a week. TRIC is one of the few infections which cause the formation of conjunctival membranes, shown on the conjunctival surface of the upper eyelid of this eye. Tetracycline and erythromycin have been used for Crede prophylaxis in some nurseries because of the increasing incidence of chlamydial infection.

Tissue Penetration

Methodological problems in obtaining tissue samples are the limiting factor in characterizing antibiotic tissue concentrations. A complete pharmacodynamic picture would include a concentration-time curve for the various tissue compartments. Most studies done in humans to date, however, simply characterize drug penetration into various tissue compartments. In spite of the limitations, these studies have provided important information about the extracellular and intracel-lular disposition of these drugs. Tissue penetration studies consistently show that penicillins and cephalosporins have rapid and good penetration into interstitial fluid 69-72 . The opposite occurs in relation to intracellular space. There is essentially no uptake of P-lactams into peripheral blood mononuclear cells, poly-morphonuclear cells, or alveolar macrophages, thus explaining the ineffectiveness of P-lactams against intracellular pathogens such as Mycoplasma or Chlamydia 73,74 .

Public Health

According to Naidoo and Wills (2000) public health is characterised by several factors - a concern for the health of the whole population (whether a geographical population, a client group such as gay men, or a group of people experiencing a specific health problem, such as Chlamydia) a concern for the prevention of illness and disease and, lastly, a recognition of the many social factors that contribute to health. There are a number of strands to public health

Adverse reactions

Tetracyclines have been around since the 1940s, and are called such because their chemical structure consists of four linear, tetracyclic rings with functional groups attached that differ from one individual agent to the next (Zhanel et al., 2004).They are used in the treatment of many sexually transmitted infections (Chlamydia, for example) but their use in treating general bacterial infections has declined in recent years as a result of widespread use in both humans and animals having led to emerging resistance. There are also newer classes of antibiotics now available that have fewer adverse effects and are better tolerated.