Indications

The Billroth II reconstruction is preferred if the duodenum has scarring or tension would result from a Billroth I reconstruction. The advantage of the Billroth II is its simplicity. Only one anastomosis is required (plus the duodenal stump closure) and a widely patent anastomosis is technically easy to perform. The primary disadvantage of a Billroth II is that the gastric remnant is exposed to pancreaticobiliary secretions. This can result in alkaline reflux gastritis. Also, because the feedback mechanisms of the duodenum are bypassed, dumping is generally more of a problem than after a Billroth II reconstruction. However, most patients tolerate a Billroth II well and it is the construction of choice if a Billroth I is not safe.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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