Adverse reactions

For parenteral formulations, pain at the site of injection can be severe, so lidocaine can be added to prevent this, depending on the cephalosporin used. Hypersensitivity can occur in 0.5-10.0 per cent of patients. Gastrointestinal problems are the most common adverse effects, but tend to be mild in nature.

TETRACYCLINES (RANG ET AL., 1999; ZHANEL ET AL., 2004; EMC, 2004A)

Tetracyclines have been around since the 1940s, and are called such because their chemical structure consists of four linear, tetracyclic rings with functional groups attached that differ from one individual agent to the next (Zhanel et al., 2004).They are used in the treatment of many sexually transmitted infections (Chlamydia, for example) but their use in treating general bacterial infections has declined in recent years as a result of widespread use in both humans and animals having led to emerging resistance. There are also newer classes of antibiotics now available that have fewer adverse effects and are better tolerated.

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