Bad taste and malodorous breath

Possible sources include:

• Poor dental hygiene (Hopcroft & Forte, 2003)

• Infections of the mouth, such as gingivitis (Toghill, 1994; Hopcroft & Forte, 2003)

• Infections of the mouth and respiratory tract, such as bronchiectasis (Toghill, 1994; Hopcroft & Forte, 2003)

• Medication: the patient may be taking drugs such as metronidazole (Toghill, 1994; Hopcroft & Forte, 2003).

Table 3 Potential causes of sore throats (Hopcroft & Forte, 2003)

Common causes

Occasional causes

Rare causes

• Mild viral pharyngitis

• Gastro-oesophageal

• Cardiac angina

• Tonsillitis/streptococcal

reflux disease

• Carotodynia

pharyngitis ('strep throat')

• Glosso-pharyngeal

• Blood dyscrasia

• Glandular fever

neuralgia and

(including iatrogenic)

• Quinsy (peritonsillar

cervicogenic nerve

• Epiglottitis

abcess)

root pain

• Diphtheria

• Oropharyngeal

• Trauma (foreign body

• Oro-pharyngeal

candidiasis

or scratch from badly

carcinoma

chewed crispy food)

• Retro-pharyngeal

• Other viral or bacterial

abscess

infections, e.g.

Vincent's angina,

herpangina, Herpes

simple, gonorrhoea

• Aphthous ulceration

• Acute or sub-acute

thyroiditis

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