Postmenopausal Bleeding

Postmenopausal bleeding is defined as an episode of vaginal bleeding occurring more than 1 year after the presumed menopause.

PATHOGENESIS

• Atrophic vaginitis

• Cervical carcinoma

• Carcinoma of the endometrium

INVESTIGATION

A complete history should be taken along with a sexual health screen and examination. If indicated, a cervical smear should be performed.

MANAGEMENT

Postmenopausal bleeding should be referred to a gynaecologist after investigations for infection, and a cervical smear conducted if indicated.

From PMS To PPD

From PMS To PPD

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