Depression and anxiety are usually reactions to the losses and threats of the medical illness. Other risk factors often contribute.
Confusion usually reflects an organic mental disorder from one or more causes, often worsened by bewilderment and distress, discomfort or pain, and being in unfamiliar surroundings with unfamiliar carers. Elderly patients with impaired memory, hearing, or sight are especially at risk. Unfortunately, reversible causes of confusion are underdiagnosed, and this causes unnecessary distress in patients and families.
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