Modern Research on Chinese Medicinal Herbs

Traditional Chinese Medicine has existed for two thousand years in China. Only in this century has modern research technology been used to study Chinese medicinal substances. The majority of the work has been conducted within the last 60 years, primarily in laboratories in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and Germany. There are two types of research on medicinal substances. One is laboratory research into the effects of the substances on in-vitro systems such as in test tubes, tissue specimens, or...

Chinese Herbal Theory

Hinese herbal theory, the theoretical base of Chinese Material Medica, has been established through long-term empirical clinical practice. It defines the character and functions of each herb, which include property, flavor, functional tendency, meridian channel tropism, and toxicity. Chinese herbal theory is based on the theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Phases (Wu Xing), which are the foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Thus, each herb is closely related to Zang-Fu organs and meridian...

Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine

He theory of Yin-Yang, Five Phases (Wu Xing), Zang-Fu system and pat- tern differentiation form the theoretical core of TCM. Chinese herbal theory is closely related to these theories and is one of the components of the complete TCM system. To understand clinical application of the herbal substances, it is necessary to understand these basic theories. 1. Yin-Yang Theory and the Eight Principal Patterns Yin and Yang are ancient Chinese philosophical concepts. Originally, Yang meant the sunny...

Xian He

Rosaceae) pharmaceutical name Cortex Ailanthi Altissima Cortex Ailanthi Altissima is produced mainly in the provinces of Shandong, Liaoning, Henan, and Anhui. It can be collected in all seasons, dried in sunlight, and cut into segments for use. flavor, property, and channel tropism Bitter and sour in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Large Intestine, Stomach, and Liver channels. Clears Heat and dries Dampness, binds the Intestine, stops bleeding and leukorrhea,...

Historical Development of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) uses many therapeutic modalities, the major one being Chinese herbal medicine. Its development has been a historical process flowing and flowering with Chinese culture for more than four thousand years. Its practice follows theories of holistic and integrative principles. Therapy is based on understanding relations between part and whole, distinguishing symptom and appearance from true cause, and treating each individual case as unique. The foundation for this...

Bos taurus domesticus Gmelin Fam Bovidae

Bovidae) Gummi Olibanum is the gum resin from Boswellia carterii. It is imported from Somalia and Ethiopia. flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Heart, Liver, and Spleen channels. Invigorates the Blood to relieve pain, reduces swelling, and promotes tissue regeneration. For dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, stomach pain, rheumatic arthralgia, and traumatic pain due to Blood Stasis. For dysmenorrhea and...

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Fam Asteracae

Atractylodes

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Fam. Asteracae) pharmaceutical name Radix Aucklandiae Radix Aucklandiae is produced chiefly in India and the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan. The root is collected in autumn, and used unprepared or after being stir-baked. flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen, Stomach, Large Intestine, and Gallbladder channels. For Deficient Spleen with distension in the epigastrium and abdomen,...

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Fructus Amomi Aromatici

Nees Fam. Acanthaceae Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Hebei, Shanxi, and Guangdong. The best quality is produced in the Li county of Hebei. It is collected in spring and autumn, then dried in sunlight after removal of the aerial part, the bark, and the hairy rootlets. The rhizome is sliced and stir-baked with salt. flavor, property, and channel tropism Bitter and sweet in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Lung, the Stomach, and...

Cuscuta chinensis Lam Cuscuta japnica Choisy Fam Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae I. Whole plant 2. Opened corolla 3. Fruit 4. Seed english name blackened swallowwort root Radix Cynanchi Atrati is produced in every part of China. It is collected in autumn, and dried in sunlight. flavor, property, and channel tropism Bitter and salty in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Stomach and Liver channels. Removes Blood Heat, relieves dysuria, counteracts toxicity, and heals sores. For febrile diseases with invasion of the Blood by...

Citrus medica L or Citrus wilsonii Tanaka Fam Rutaceae

Medicinal Citron Xiangyuan

Branch with fruit 2. Flower Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis is produced chiefly in the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Yunnan, and Sichuan. Collected in winter, the fruit is sliced, then dried in sunlight. FLAVOR, PROPERTY, AND CHANNEL TROPISM Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Liver, Spleen, Stomach, and Lung channels. Regulates the Qi of the Liver and Stomach, resolves Phlegm. For distension and pain in the chest and hypochondriac regions...

Coix lacrymajobi L var mayuen Roman Stapf Fam Poaceae

Coix Lacryma Jobi

Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Roman. Stapf Fam. Poaceae I. Whole plant 2. Male flower 3. Pistil Herba Commelinae is grown in every part of China, and collected in summer and autumn. flavor, property, and channel tropism Sweet and bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Lung, Stomach, and Bladder channels. Clears Heat and toxins, promotes diuresis. For Exterior syndromes with fever, it is used with Menthae Arvensis Bo He and Fructus Arctii Niu Bang Zi . For epidemic febrile diseases...

Curcuma longa L or Curcuma aromatica Salisb Fam Zingiberaceae

Tumbuhan Curcumae

Zingiberaceae I. Whole plant with flowers 2. Tuberous root and rhizome Radix Curcumae is produced chiefly in Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. It is collected in winter and autumn, cleaned, broiled, dried in sunlight, and sliced. flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Heart, Liver, and Gallbladder channels. Invigorates Blood to relieve pain, promotes flow of Qi to relieve depression, clears Heat from the Heart, cools...

Aucklandia lappa Decne or Saussurea Lappa Clarke Fam Asteraceae

Saussurea Lappa

Asteraceae I. Root 2. Leaf 3. Branch with flower pharmaceutical name Caulis Bambusae In Taeniis Caulis Bambusae In Taeniis is produced mainly in southern China. It is collected in all seasons, used fresh or after being dried in sunlight, or used stir-baked with ginger juice. flavor, property, and channel tropism Sweet in flavor, slightly cold in property, acts on the Lung, Stomach, and Gallbladder channels. Resolves Phlegm Heat, relieves restlessness, and stops...

Cassia angustifolia vahl or Cassia acutifolia Delile Fam Fabaceae

Fabaceae I. Branch with flowers 2. Pistil and stamen 3. Fruit Semen Cassiae is produced mainly in the provinces of Anhui, Guangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, and Guangdong. Collected in autumn, the seeds are dried in sunlight and used unprepared or stir-baked. flavor, property, and channel tropism Sweet and bitter in flavor, slightly cold in property, acts on the Liver and Large Intestine channels. Clears Liver Heat and improves eyesight, moistens the Intestines to relieve...

Cryptotympana pustulata Fabricius Fam Cicadidae

Cryptotympana pustulata Fabricius Fam. Cicadidae Cryptotympana pustulata Fabricius Fam. Cicadidae Rhizoma Curculiginis is produced chiefly in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou. It is collected in spring and autumn, dried in sunlight, sliced, and used unprepared. flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Kidney channel, mildly toxic. Warms the Kidney and reinforces the Kidney Yang, expels Wind, and removes Dampness. For impotence, seminal...

Celosa argentea L Fam Amaranthaceae

Rong Cervus Elaphus

Amaranthaceae i. Branch with flower 2. Flower 3. Seeds pharmaceutical name Cornu Cervi Parvum Cornu Cervi Parvum is the young pilose antler of the male Cervus nippon Temminck or Cervus elaphus Linnaeus Fam. Cervidae . The former is known as Hua Lu Rong sika deer pilose antler , the later known as Ma Lu Rong red deer pilose antler . The horn is cut into slices or ground into powder for use. flavor, property, and channel tropism Sweet and salty in flavor, warm in...

Boehmeria nivea L Gaud Fam Urticaceae

Urticaceae I. Root 2. Stem with flowers 3. Flower 4. Fruit pharmaceutical name Bombyx Batryticatus body of fourth- or fifth-stage larva This herb is the dried body of fourth- or fifth-stage larva of Bombyx mori L. Fam. Bombycidae that has died of infection or artificial infection by Beau-veria bassiana Bals. Vuill. It is produced mainly in the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Sichuan. The silkworms are dried in sunlight and used unprepared or stir-baked. flavor,...

Application of Chinese Medicinal Herbs

Hinese herbs are commonly used in a combination of two or more herbs, called a formula, to increase or to reinforce the effects of each medicinal substance, to minimize toxicity or side effects, to accommodate complex clinical situations, and to alter the actions of the substances. Although the principles of combining herbs are usually introduced in a prescription manual, not in a materia medica, it is necessary to understand how and why the herbs are combined as well as some general rules for...