Chun Pi

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. (Fam. Simaroubaceae) I. Stem with fruit; 2. Flower; 3. Bark english name akebia fruit part used nearly ripe fruit

Fructus Akebiae is produced in the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Hunan. It is collected in September, washed, dried, and sliced.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Liver, Gallbladder, Stomach, and Bladder channels.

functions

Soothes the Liver and relieves depression, promotes blood circulation to relieve pain, causes diuresis, and destroys parasites.

clinical use and major combinations

For epigastric and hypochondriac distension and pain.

For amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. For treating snake bite and insect bite.

dosage and administration

3—9 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

It is contraindicated for those with diarrhea due to Deficiency of the Spleen.

Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne., Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz., or Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. var. australis (Diels) Rehd. (Fam. Lardizabalaceae)

YU ZHI ZI

YU ZHI ZI

Natur Kreativ
Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. (Fam. Lardizabalaceae) I. Branch with flowers; 2. male flower; 3. Female flower; 4. Fruit

english name silk tree albizzia bark, mimosa tree bark part used bark

Cortex Albizziae Julibrissin is produced in all parts of China. It is collected in summer and autumn, and cut into slices.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet in flavor, neutral in property, acts on the Heart and Liver channels.

functions

Tranquilizes the Mind and relieves depression, promotes Blood circulation to induce swelling.

clinical use and major combinations

For depression, restlessness due to Deficiency, poor memory, and insomnia, it is used alone or with other herbs such as Semen Platycladi (Bai Zi Ren).

For fracture, it is used with Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui) and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong). For carbuncles and swelling, it is used with Herba Taraxaci (Pu Gong Ying) and Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (Ye Ju Hua).

dosage and administration

10—15 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

None noted.

Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. or Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Pram (Fam. Mimosaceae)

HE HUAN PI

Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. (Fam. Mimosaceae) I. Branch with flowers; 2. Bark, herbal material; 3. Stamen english name water plantain rhizome part used dried tuber

Rhizoma Alismatis is produced chiefly in the provinces of Fujian, Sichuan, and Jiangxi. It is collected in winter, sliced and dried in sunlight, and stir-baked with bran or salt water.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet and bland in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Kidney and Bladder channels.

functions

Diuretic for Excess Dampness and Heat.

clinical use and major combinations

For oliguria, edema, gonorrhea with turbid urine, or leukorrhea, it is used with Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling) and Sclerotium Polypori Umbellati (Zhu Ling).

For diarrhea and dizziness due to Phlegm, it is used with Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu) in "The Alismatis Decoction" (Ze Xie Tang).

dosage and administration

5—10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

Large doses may lead to spermatorrhea.

Alismaplantago-aquatica L. var. Alisma orientale Samuels (Fam. Alismataceae)

ZE XIE

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. (Fam. Alismataceae) I. Upper part of the plant; 2. Branch with flower; 3. Flower; 4. Tuber english name long stamen onion bulb, bulb of Chinese chive part used dried bulb

Bulbus Allii Macrostemi is grown in most parts of China, but those produced in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces are of the best quality. It is collected in May, dried in sunlight, and used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Liver, Stomach, and Large Intestine channels.

functions

Relieves the obstruction of Yang to disperse accumulation of pathogens, promotes the flow of Qi to remove stagnation.

clinical use and major combinations

For tightness and pain in the chest, and for dyspnea and cough due to accumulation of Cold Phlegm and obstruction of Yang in the chest, it is used with Fructus Trichosanthis (Gua Lou) in "The Decoction of Trichosanthis and Allium with Wine" (Gua Lou Xie Bai Bai Jiu Tang) or "The Decoction of Trichosanthes, Allium and Pinellia" (Gua Lou Xie Bai Ban Xia Tang). With Blood Stasis marked by stabbing pain in the chest and back, it is used with Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dan Shen), Flos Carthami Tinctorii (Hong Hua), and Radix Peoniae Rubra (Chi Shao).

For Stagnant Qi in Stomach and Intestine with diarrhea and dysentery with tenesmus, it is used with Radix Bupleuri (Chai Hu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (Bai Shao), and Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhi Shi), or with Cortex Phellodendri (Huang Bai) and Cortex Fraxini (Qin Pi).

dosage and administration

5—10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

1. Contraindicated in patients with Deficient Qi.

2. Contraindicated in patients with Deficient Stomach Qi.

Allium macrostemon Bge. (Fam. Liliaceae)

XIE BAI

Allium macrostemon Bge. (Fam. Liliaceae) I. Whole plant with flower; 2. Flower english name aloe part used dried juice or fresh plant

Herba Aloes, the dried concentrated matter obtained from the juice of the leaf of Aloe vera L. and Aloe ferox Miller or other species of the same genus, is produced chiefly in Africa as well as in some provinces of China such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Liver and Large Intestine channels.

functions

Removes Liver Heat, improves intestinal motility.

clinical use and major combinations

For constipation with restless and insomnia due to accumulation of Heat, it is used with Cinnabaris (Zhu Sha). For constipation with dizziness, headache, tinnitus, and irritability, it is used with Fruc-tus Gardeniae (Zhi Zi), Indigo Naturalis (Qing Dai), and Radix Gentianae (Long Dan Cao) in "Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Herba Aloe Pills" (Dang Gui Lu Hui Wan).

For infantile malnutrition due to improper feeding and for convulsions.

Used externally for eczema and ringworm.

dosage and administration

I—2 g, used in bolus and powder form. Appropriate dosage for external use.

precautions

Contraindicated during pregnancy and in patients with Cold and Deficient Spleen or Stomach Disorders.

Aloe vera L. (A. Barbadensis Miller.) Aloe ferox Miller (Fam. Liliaceae)

LU HUI

Aloe Vera Fam Liliaceae

Aloe vera L. (A. barbadensis Miller.) (Fam. Liliaceae) I. Whole plant; 2. Flower; 3. Opened corolla showing stamen and pistal; 4. Stamen english name katsumada's galangal seed part used ripe seed

Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai is produced chiefly in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. It is collected in summer and autumn, dried in sunlight, crushed, and used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen and Stomach channels.

functions

Dries Dampness, warms the Spleen and Stomach, and activates the flow of Qi.

clinical use and major combinations

For obstruction by Cold Dampness in the Spleen and Stomach with epigastric distention, stomachache, vomiting, and diarrhea, it is used with Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Hou Po), Rhizoma Atracty-lodis (Cang Zhu), and Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia), or with Cortex Cinnamomi (Rou Gui) and Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang). Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai has a similar but stronger function of drying Dampness and warming the Spleen and Stomach than Fructus Amomi.

dosage and administration

3—6 g, decocted in water for an oral dose. It should be decocted after other herbs when an herbal mixture is used.

precautions

None noted.

Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

CAO DOU KOU

Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (Fam. Zingiberaceae) i. Fruit; T. Leaves; 3. Flower english name lesser galangal rhizome part used dried rhizome

Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum is produced chiefly in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Taiwan. The plant is collected in summer and autumn. After the stems and hairy rootlets are removed, the rhizomes are cut into pieces and dried in sunlight. They are used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, hot in property, acts on the Spleen and Stomach channels.

functions

Warms the Spleen and Stomach, relieves pain.

clinical use and major combinations

For epigastric pain with cold sensation, it is used alone or with Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiang Fu) in "The Pill of Cyperi" (Xiang Fu Wan).

For vomiting, belching, and acid reflux due to Cold in the Stomach, it is used with Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia) and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens (Sheng Jiang).

dosage and administration

precautions

None noted.

Alpinia officinarum Hance (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

GAO LIANG JIANG

Sir Fetched

Alpinia officinarum Hance (Fam. Zingiberaceae) 1-2. Whole plant with flowers; 3. Fruit english name sharpleaf glangal fruit, black cardamon seeds part used ripe fruit

Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae is produced mainly in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Fujian. It is collected in summer, and dried in sunlight. The shell is removed and the kernel is parched with salt water.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen and Kidney channels.

functions

Warms the Spleen to stop diarrhea and stops excessive salivation, tonifies the Kidney, arrests seminal emission, and reduces urination.

clinical use and major combinations

For abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea due to Spleen Yang Deficiency, it is used with Radix Codonopsis (Dang Shen), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu), and Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang).

For seminal emission, enuresis, frequent urination, and cloudy urine, it is used with Rhizoma Dioscoreae (Shan Yao) and Radix Linderae (WuYao).

For poor appetite and drowsiness due to Cold from Deficiency of Spleen and Stomach Qi, it is used with Radix Codonopsis (Dang Shen), Rhi-zoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu), and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi).

dosage and administrations

3—6 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Yin Deficiency and Excess Fire, or with diseases due to Damp Heat.

Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) i. Flowers; 2. Fruit english name round cardamom fruit part used ripe fruit

Fructus Amomi Kravanh is produced in southeastern countries in Asia. It is collected in autumn, and dried in sunlight. Usually, the crushed fruit and seeds are prepared for use before a decoction is made.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Lung, Spleen, and Stomach channels.

functions

Resolves Dampness, activates the flow of Qi, warms the Middle Heater, and stops vomiting.

clinical use and major combinations

For Qi Stagnation in the Spleen and Stomach, or Stagnation of Dampness in the Middle Heater, it is used with Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum (Chen Xiang) and Fructus Aurantii (Zhi Qiao). For vomiting due to Cold in the Stomach.

dosage and administration

3—6 g, decocted in water for internal use. Decocted after other herbs.

precautions

None noted.

Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep. (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

BAI DOU KOU

Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep. (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

I. Inflorescence; 2. Leaves; 3. Fruit english name caoguo amomum fruit part used dried ripe fruit

Fructus Amomi Tsaoko is produced chiefly in the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou. Collected in autumn when ripe, the fruit is then cleaned and dried in sunlight. It can be stir-baked to a yellowish color or slightly stir-baked with ginger juice.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen and Stomach channels.

functions

Dries Pathogenic Dampness, warms Spleen and Stomach, arrests malarial attacks.

clinical use and major combinations

For disturbance of the functions of Spleen and Stomach due to accumulation of Dampness with epigastric distention, stomachache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, it is used with Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Hou Po), Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cang Zhu), and Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia).

For malarial attacks, especially those with syndromes of Pathogenic Cold Dampness, it is used with Radix Dichroae (Chang Shan), Radix Bupleuri (Chai Hu), and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhi Mu).

dosage and administration

3—6 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions

None noted.

Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

CAO GUO

Amomum Tsaoko
Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

english name villous amomum fruit part used dried ripe fruit

Fructus Amomi is produced chiefly in Yangchun, Xinyi, and Gaozhou counties, in the Zhanjiang area in Guangdong, in Hainan province, and in south Asia. The highest quality Fructus Amomi is considered to be from Yangchun county. It is collected in summer and autumn when it is ripe, then dried, and crushed for use.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in taste, warm in nature, acts on the Spleen and Stomach channels.

functions

Resolves Pathogenic Dampness, activates the flow of Qi, warms the Spleen and Stomach, regulates the activities of Qi to prevent threatened abortion.

clinical use and major combinations

For disturbance of the Spleen and Stomach functions due to Dampness and Stagnation of Qi with epigastric distention, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, it is used with Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cang Zhu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Hou Po), and Fructus Amomi Kravanh (Dou Kou); or with Radix Aucklandiae (Mu Xiang), Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhi Shi), and Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu) in "Aucklandiae Amomi Aurantii Pill" (Xiang Sha Zhi Shi Wan); or with Radix Codonopsis (Dang Shen) and Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu) in "The Six Gentlemen Pill with Aucklandiae and Amomi" (Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Wan).

For diarrhea due to Cold of the Deficiency type in the Spleen and Stomach, it is used alone as powder for an oral dose, or with herbs for warming the Interior, such as Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang).

For morning sickness and threatened abortion with excessive fetal movement, it is used with Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu) and Caulis Perillae (Zi Su Geng).

dosage and administration

3—6 g, used as powder, or decocted in water for an oral dose, but decocted after the other herbs.

precautions

None noted.

Amomum villosum Lour., Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen, or Amomum longiligulare T.L. Wu ( Fam. Zingiberaceae)

SHA REN

SHA REN

Amomum villosum Lour. ( Fam. Zingiberaceae)

I. Root-tuber and flowers; 2. Leaf; 3. Fruit

Amomum villosum Lour. ( Fam. Zingiberaceae)

I. Root-tuber and flowers; 2. Leaf; 3. Fruit pharmaceutical name dosage and administration

6—15 g, decocted in water for an oral dose or used in pills and powder. Appropriate quantity for external use.

Herba Andrographitis Paniculata english name kariyat, andrographis part used precautions

None noted.

dried aerial part

Herba Andrographitis Paniculata is produced chiefly in the southern, eastern, and southwestern parts of China. The herb is collected in early autumn, sliced, and dried in sunlight. It may be used fresh or prepared as a paste for external application.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Lung, Stomach, Large Intestine, and Small Intestine channels.

functions

Clears Pathogenic Heat, eliminates Dampness, and promotes diuresis.

clinical use and major combinations

For febrile diseases at the initial stage with symptoms of fever, headache, and sore and swollen throat, it is used with Flos Lonicerae (Jin Yin Hua), Radix Platycodi (Jie Geng), and Fructus Arctii (Niu Bang Zi).

For cough due to Excess Heat in the Lung, it is used with Cortex Lycii Radicis (Di Gu Pi) and Cortex Mori (Sang Bai Pi).

For lung abscess with cough, thick sputum, and chest pain, it is used with Herba Houttuynia Cordatae (Yu Xing Cao) and Radix Platycodi (Jie Geng).

For diarrhea due to Damp Heat, it is used alone or with Herba Portulacae (Ma Chi Xian) and Flos Lonicerae (Jin Yin Hua).

For polyuria and dysuria due to Pathogenic Heat, it is used with Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (Hu Zhang), Semen Plantaginis (Che Qian Zi), and Rhizoma Imperatae (Bai Mao Gen).

For carbuncles, sores, and nodules, fresh Andro-graphitis can be pounded into a paste for external application.

Andrographispaniculata (Burm. F. ) Nees (Fam. Acanthaceae)

CHUAN XIN LIAN

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