Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae

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Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees (Fam. Acanthaceae)

I. Branch with flower; 2. Fruit english name anemarrhena rhizome part used dried rhizome

Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Hebei, Shanxi, and Guangdong. The best quality is produced in the Li county of Hebei. It is collected in spring and autumn, then dried in sunlight after removal of the aerial part, the bark, and the hairy rootlets. The rhizome is sliced and stir-baked with salt.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter and sweet in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Lung, the Stomach, and the Kidney channels.

functions

Clears away pathogenic Heat and Fire, replenishes Yin, promotes the production of Fluid, alleviates Dryness.

clinical use and major combinations

For febrile diseases due to Excess Pathogenic Heat in the Lung and Stomach with such symptoms as high fever, dire thirst, full and forceful pulse.

For dry cough due to Excess Heat or cough with thick sputum due to Yin Deficiency, it is used with Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (Chuan Bei Mu) in "Anemarrhenae and Fritillariae Powder" (Er Mu Sang).

For hyperactivity of Fire due to Deficiency of Lung Yin and Kidney Yin, with night sweats and irritability, it is used with Cortex Phellodendri (Huang Bai) in "The Pill of Anemarrhenae, Phello-dendri, and Rehmanniae" (Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan).

For diabetes due to Deficiency of Yin showing as polydipsia and polyuria, it is used with Radix Tri-chosanthis (Tian Hua Fen) and Fructus Schisandrae (Wu Wei Zi).

dosage and administration

6—12 g, decocted in water for an oral dose or used in pills or powder form.

precautions

Contraindicated for patients with diarrhea due to a Spleen Deficiency.

Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Fam. Liliaceae)

ZHI MU

Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Fam. Liliaceae) I. Whole plant with flower; 2. Flower; 3. Fruit english name biserrat angelica root part used dried root

Radix Angelicae Biserratae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Hubei and Sichuan. It is collected in early spring when it begins to sprout or at the end of autumn when it is withered. The hairy rootlets are removed and the root is cleaned, dried and sliced, then used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Liver, Kidney, and Bladder channels.

functions

Expels Pathogenic Wind and Dampness to relieve rheumatic conditions and pain, relieves Exterior syndromes by dispelling Pathogenic Cold.

clinical use and major combinations

For arthritis due to Wind Dampness, especially arthritis in the lower back and legs, Radix Angelicae Pubescentis is used with other anti-rheumatics such as Radix Rehmanniae (Sheng Di Huang), Cortex Eucommiae Ulmoidis (Du Zhong), and Rumulus Taxilli Sutchuenensis (Sang Ji Sheng) in "The Angelicae Biserratae-Taxilli Decoction" (Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang).

For invasion of Cold on the Shao Yin channel complicated by Pathogenic Dampness in the interior manifesting as headache with precordial pain, aching joints all over the body, and aversion to cold, it is used with Rhizoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo).

dosage and administration

precautions

None noted.

Angelica biserrata (Shan et Yuan) Yuan et Shan (Fam. Apiaceae)

DU HUO

Angelica biserrata (Shan et Yuan) Yuan et Shan (Fam. Apiaceae)

I. Root; 2. Branch with flower; 3. Flower; 4. Fruit; 5. Cross-section of the fruit english name dahurian angelica root, angelica root part used root

Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is produced chiefly in Zhejiang, Hubei, Lianoning, and Sichuan provinces. It is harvested in summer and autumn when the leaves turn yellow. After removal of the hairy rootlets, it is sliced and dried in the sunlight. It is used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Lung and Stomach channels.

functions

Relieves Exterior syndromes, dispels Wind and removes Dampness, reduces swelling, drains pus, and relieves pain.

clinical use and major combinations

For common cold due to Wind Cold with headache and stuffy nose, it is used with Radix Saposh-nikoviae (Fang Feng) and Rhizoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo) in "The Nine-Ingredient Notoptery-gium Decoction" (Jiu Wei Qiang Huo Tang).

For headache, especially pain in the forehead, it is used alone or with Rhizoma Ligustici (Chuan Xiong) and Radix Saposhnikoviae (Fang Feng) in "The Chuan Xiong-Mixture Powder" (Chuan Xiong Cha Tiao San).

For headache due to stuffy nose with rhinorrhea, it is used with Fructus Xanthii (Cang Er Zi) and Flos Magnoliae (Xin Yi) in "The Xanthii Powder" (Cang Er San).

For toothache due to Wind Cold which is aggravated by cold air or food, it is used with Herba Asari (Xi Xin). For toothache due to Wind Fire that is aggravated by Heat.

For various kinds of infections of the skin. For example, for acute mastitis, it is used with Fructus Trichosanthis (Gua Lou), Herba Taraxaci (Pu Gong Ying), and Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (Chuan Bei Mu); for swelling and pain of sores and wounds, it is used with Flos Lonicerae ( Jin Yin Hua) and Radix Trichosanthis (Tian Hua Fen).

For profuse, clear, and thin leukorrhea due to Cold Damp, it is used with Os Sepiae seu Sepiellae (Hai Piao Xiao), Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling), and Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu).

dosage and administration

3 —10 g, decocted in water for internal use.

precautions

None noted.

Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hood. F. (Fam. Apiaceae) or Angelica dahurica

Benth. et Hook. F. var. formosana Shan et Yuan

BAI ZHI

BAI ZHI

Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hood. F. (Fam. Apiaceae)

I. Root; 2. Branch with fruit; 3. Flower; 4. Fruit; 5. Cross-section of fruit

Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hood. F. (Fam. Apiaceae)

I. Root; 2. Branch with fruit; 3. Flower; 4. Fruit; 5. Cross-section of fruit english name Chinese angelica root part used dried root

Radix Angelicae Sinensis is produced mainly in Gansu Province. Collected in late autumn, the root is smoked dry over low heat after the rootlets are removed. It is sliced and used unprepared or stir-baked with wine.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet and pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Liver, Heart, and Spleen channels.

functions

Tonifies the Blood, promotes Blood circulation, relieves pain, and moistens the Intestine.

clinical use and major combinations

For Blood Deficiency syndromes with sallow complexion, pale lips and tongue, dizziness, palpitation, and pale nails, it is used with herbs that tonify Qi, such as Radix Astragali Membranaceus (Huang Qi) in "The Radix Angelicae Sinensis Decoction for Replenishing the Blood" (Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang).

For irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, and menorrhagia. For patients with Blood Deficiency, it is used with Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Di Huang), and Radix Paeoniae Alba (Bai Shao) in "The Decoction of Four Ingredients" (Si Wu Tang). For amenorrhea due to Blood Stasis, it is used with Flos Carthami Tinctorii (Hong Hua), Semen Persi-cae (Tao Ren), Radix Peoniae Rubra (Chi Shao), and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong) in "The Decoction of Four Ingredients Plus Semen Persicae and Flos Carthami" (Tao Hong Si Wu Tang). For menorrhagia, it is used with Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiang Fu) and Radix Curcumae Yanhusuo (Yan Hu Suo).

For pain in the extremities due to Blood Stasis, it is used with Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dan Shen), Myrrha (Mo Yao), and Gummi Olibanum (Ru Xiang) in "The Effective Bolus for Activating Energy Flow in Channels and Collaterals" (Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan). For traumatic pain, it is used with Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang), Flos Carthami Tinctorii (Hong Hua), and Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) in "The Decoction for Recovery and Activity of Blood Circulation" (Fu Yuan Huo Xue Tang). For arthralgia or numbness of the extremities, it is used with Rhizoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo), Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi), and Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae (Qin Jiao) in "The Decoction for Treating Rheumatic or Rheumatoid Arthritis" ( Juan Bi Tang).

For early stage infections with redness, swelling, and pain but without pus, it is used with Flos Loni-cerae (Jin Yin Hua), Radix Peoniae Rubra (Chi Shao), and Radix Trichosanthis (Tian Hua Fen) in "The Fairy Decoction for Treating Cutaneous Infections" ( Xian Fang Huo Ming Yin). For slow-healing infections long after rupture, it is used with Radix Astragali Membranaceus (Huang Qi), Radix Ginseng (Ren Shen), Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Di Huang), and Cortex Cinnamomi (Rou Gui) in "The Decoction of Ten Powerful Tonics" (Shi Quan Da Bu Tang).

For constipation due to Blood Deficiency and Dry Intestines, it is used with Herba Cistanches (Rou Cong Rong) and Fructus Cannabis Sativae (Huo Ma Ren).

dosage and administration

5—15 g, decocted in water for internal use. It is used unprepared for nourishing Blood and stir-baked with wine for promoting menstrual flow and Blood circulation.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Excess Dampness and loose stools.

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. (Fam. Apiaceae)

DANG GUI

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. (Fam. Apiaceae) I. Branch; 2. Root; 3. Leaves english name dogbane leaf part used dried leaf

Folium Apocyni Veneti is produced chiefly in the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Anhui. The herb is collected in summer, cleaned, and dried for use.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Tasteless and astringent in flavor, slightly cold in property, acts on the Liver channel.

functions

Soothes the Liver, clears Heat, and is a diuretic.

clinical use and major combinations

For hypertension due to Hyperactive Liver Yang or Liver Heat with headache, dizziness, restlessness, and insomnia, it can be used alone or with Spica Prunellae (Xia Ku Cao), Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis (Gou Teng), and Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (Ye Ju Hua). This herb can also be used for dysuria and edema due to Heat.

dosage and administration

3 —10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose or steeped in boiling water.

precautions

None noted.

Apocynum venetum L. (Fam. Apocynaceae)

LUO BU MA YE

Dou Ling Aristolochiae Fructus

Apocynum venetum L. (Fam. Apocynaceae) I. Branch with flowers and fruit; 2. Root english name

Chinese eaglewood, aquilaria part used wood containing resin

Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum is produced chiefly in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, and in Taiwan. It is dried in the shade and ground into a fine powder.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen, Stomach, and Kidney channels.

functions

Promotes the flow of Qi, relieves pain, normalizes the function of the Stomach, warms the Kidney, and relieves asthma.

clinical use and major combinations

For distension and pain in the chest and abdomen due to Stagnation of Cold and Qi, it is used with Radix Linderae (Wu Yao), Radix Aucklandiae (Mu Xiang), and Semen Arecae (Bing Lang).

For vomiting and hiccups due to Cold from Stomach Deficiency, it is used with Flos Syzygii Aromatici (Ding Xiang), Fructus Amomi Kravanh (Dou Kou), and Calyx Kaki (Shi Di).

For stuffy chest, asthma, and dyspnea due to failure of the Kidney to grasp the Qi, it is used with Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Zhi Fu Zi), Cortex Cinnamomi (Rou Gui), and Fructus Psoraleae (Bu Gu Zhi), or with Fructus Perillae (Zi Su Zi), Radix Peucedani (Qian Hu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Hou Po), Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi), and Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia).

dosage and administration r—r.5 g, ground into powder for an oral dose.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Hyperactive Fire due to Yin Deficiency.

Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (Fam. Thymelaeaceae)

CHEN XIANG

Fructus Amomi Aromatici

Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (Fam. Thymelaeaceae) I. Branch with fruit; 2. Cross-section of the fruit; 3. Seed english name great burdock fruit part used dried ripe fruit

Fructus Arctii is produced mainly in the provinces of Hebei and Zhejiang. It is collected in autumn, dried in sunlight, and used unprepared or stir-baked.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent and bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Lung and Stomach channel.

functions

Disperses Wind Heat, promotes rash eruption, and soothes sore throat.

clinical use and major combinations

For invasion of Wind Heat with such symptoms as sore throat and expectoration, it is often used with Menthae Arvensis (Bo He), Herba Schizo-nepetae Tenuifolia (Jing Jie), and Radix Platycodi (Jie Geng) as in "The Forsythiae and Lonicerae Powder" (Yin Qiao San) or "The Arctii Decoction" (Niu Bang Tang).

For the initial stage of measles and rubella and incomplete eruption of measles, it is used with Flos Lonicerae (Jin Yin Hua), Menthae Arvensis (Bo He), Herba Schizonepetae Tenuifolia ( Jing Jie), and Radix Arnebiae seu Lithospermi (Zi Cao).

For mumps, erysipelas, carbuncles, and sores, it is often used in combination with Radix Isatidis (Ban Lan Gen), Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (Ye Ju Hua), and Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae (Lian Qiao).

dosage and administration

3 —10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose, or used in pills or powders.

precautions

1. It should not be used in patients with diarrhea due to Deficiency of Qi.

2. It is contraindicated in patients with open streptococcus infection of the skin, carbuncles, and sores.

Arctium lappa L. (Fam. Asteraceae)

NIU BANG ZI

The Bulbus Worm

Arctium lappa L. (Fam. Asteraceae) I. Branch with fruit; 2. Flower; 3. Fruit english name areca seeds part used dried ripe seed

Semen Arecae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Hainan, Fujian, and Yunnan. Collected in spring and winter, it is peeled, dried, and sliced after maceration.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent and bitter in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Stomach and Large Intestine channels.

functions

Kills parasites, relieves food retention, promotes the flow of Qi, and is a diuretic.

clinical use and major combinations

For various kinds of worms in the intestinal tract, such as ascariasis, taeniasis, and ancylostomiasis. For taeniasis, it is used with Semen Cucurbitae (Nan Gua Zi).

For food retention or stagnation of Qi with distention and a sensation of fullness in the epigastrium, and for constipation and diarrhea with tenes-mus, it is used with Radix Aucklandiae (Mu Xiang), Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride (Qing Pi), and Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang).

For edema, it is used with Radix Phytolaccae (Shang Lu), Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling), and Rhizoma Alismatis (Ze Xie) in "The Decoction for Diuresis" (Shu Zao Yin Zi) or with Fructus Chaenomelis (Mu Gua), Fructus Evodiae (Wu Zhu Yu), Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi), and Caulis Perillae (Zi Su Geng) in "The Cock Crowing Powder" (Ji Ming San). For malaria.

dosage and administration

6—15 g, decocted in water for an oral dose; 60—120 g, if used alone to treat taeniasis.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with diarrhea due to Spleen Deficiency.

BING LANG

Areca catechu L. (Fam. Arecaceae) I. Whole plant; 2. Fruit; 3. Cross section of the fruit; 4. Seeds english name areca peel part used dried pericarp

Pericarpium Arecae is mainly grown in Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan, and Fujian. The unripe fruit is collected in winter through spring. It is boiled, dried, and sliced. This unripe peel is called Da Fu Pi, whereas the ripe fruit is called Da Fu Mao.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, slightly warm in property, acts on the Spleen, Stomach, Large Intestine, and Small Intestine channels.

functions

Lowers Qi and soothes the Middle Heater, is a diuretic.

clinical use and major combinations

For Qi Stagnation due to accumulation of Dampness with epigastric and abdominal distension, difficult elimination of the feces, edema of the legs, and oliguia, it is used with Semen Arecae (Bing Lang).

dosage and administration

3 —10 g, decocted in water for internal use.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with loose stools due to Spleen Deficiency.

DA FU PI

Areca catechu L. (Fam. Arecaceae) I. Whole plant; 2. Fruit; 3. Cross section of the fruit; 4. Seeds pharmaceutical name dosage and administration

5—10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose. Proper amount for external use.

Rhizoma Arisaematis english name jack-in-the-pulpit tuber precautions r. Contraindicated during pregnancy. 2. Toxic.

part used dried tuber

Rhizoma Arisaematis is grown in the provinces of Henan, Hebei, Fujian, and Sichuan. After it is collected in autumn and winter, the stem and hairy rootlets are cleaned. Then it is dried in sunlight or soaked in an alum solution, decocted with ginger, sliced, and then dried in sunlight.

flavor, property, and channel tropism Bitter and pungent in flavor, warm in property with toxic effects, acts on the Lung, Liver, and Spleen channels.

functions

Eliminates Dampness and resolves Phlegm, dispels Wind, and alleviates pain.

clinical use and major combinations

For cough with copious sputum, greasy tongue coating, and stuffy chest due to damp sputum accumulation, it is used with Pericarpium Citri Re-ticulatae (Chen Pi), Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia), Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling), and Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhi Shi). For cough with yellow and sticky sputum due to Lung Heat, it is used with Radix Scutellariae (Huang Qin) and Fructus Trichosanthis (Gua Lou).

For dizziness due to Wind Phlegm, paralysis, facial paralysis, and numbness in the hands or feet, it is used with Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia), Rhizoma Typhonii Gigantei (Bai Fu Zi), and Radix Aconiti (Chuan Wu).

For boils, carbuncles, scrofula, and tuberculosis, the herb is soaked in vinegar and the concentrated solution is applied topically.

In recent years, this herb has been used to treat carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pharmacological research shows the herb has antineoplastic action.

Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott., Arisaema heterophyllum BL., or Aresaema amurense Maxim. (Fam. Araceae)

TIAN NAN XING

Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott. (Fam. Araceae) I. Branch with flower; 2. Root-tuber; 3. Flower english name slender Dutchman's pipe root part used dried lianoid stem and/or root

Radix Aristolochiae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui. The herb is collected in October and November. After the hairy rootlets are removed, the stem or root is dried in sunlight, sliced, and used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, slightly cold in property, acts on the Liver and Stomach channels.

functions

Promotes the flow of Qi, relieves pain, reduces swelling.

clinical use and major combinations

For distension and pain in the chest and hypochondriac region or abdomen due to Stagnation of Liver and Stomach Qi, it is used with Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiang Fu) and Fructus Meliae Radicis (Chuan Lian Zi).

For carbuncles, boils, and snake and insect bites, it is used with Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi) for an oral dose or for topical application. Hypotensive.

dosage and administration

3 —10 g, decocted in water for an oral dose. 1.5 — 2 g, if used as powder for an oral dose. Appropriate quantity for external application.

precautions

Large dosages may result in vomiting and anorexia.

Aristolochia debilis Sieb. Et Zucc. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

QING MU XIANG

Aristolochia debilis Sieb. Et Zucc. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae) I. Branch with flower; 2. Root; 3. Fruit english name akebia stem part used stem

Caulis Akebiae is produced chiefly in the provinces of Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Sichuan. All of them are collected in spring and autumn, dried in sunlight, and used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Heart, Small Intestine, and Bladder channels.

functions

Diuretic, used in the treatment of gonorrhea, promotes galactation.

clinical use and major combinations

For dribbling urination with scanty, dark urine and burning pain due to Pathogenic Damp Heat in the Bladder, or with sores in the mouth, restlessness, and dark urine due to Excessive Heat in the Heart, it is used with Pulvis Talci (Hua Shi) and Semen Plantaginis (Che Qian Zi) in "The Eight Health Restoring Powder" (Ba Zheng San). Or, it is used with Radix Rehmanniae (Sheng Di Huang), Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis (Gan Cao), and Herba Lophatheri (Dan Zhu Ye) in "Powder for Reducing Heart Fire" (Dao Chi San).

For galactostasis, it is used with Semen Vaccariae (Wang Bu Liu Xing) and Squama Manitis (Chuan Shan Jia), or cooked with pig's feet.

Also used in the treatment of rheumatic or rheumatoid arthritis due to Damp Heat.

dosage and administration

3—6 g, decocted in water for an oral dose.

precautions r. According to clinical reports, large dosages (60 g) of Caulis Arkebiae can result in acute renal failure.

2. Use with caution in pregnant women.

Aristolochia manshuriensis contains aristolochic acid, which has been the subject of warnings by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Its use has also been banned in some jurisdictions because of a possible link to kidney disease. Please consult a physician before using this herb.

Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

GUAN MU TONG

Aristolochia Manshuriensis

Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae) I. Branch with fruit; 2. Flower; 3. Stem, cross section of the stem pharmaceutical name Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae english name herb of wooly Dutchman's pipe part used whole plant

Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae is produced mainly in the provinces of Jiangsu, Hunan, and Jiangxi. This herb is the whole plant or rhizome. It is collected in summer and autumn, dried in the sun, and cut into segments for use.

flavor, property, and channel tropism Pungent and bitter in flavor, neutral in property, acts on the Liver channel.

functions

Dispels Wind Dampness, reactivates channels, and relieves pain.

clinical use and major combinations

For arthralgia with painful joints, dysfunction of the tendons and bones, injury and wounds with swelling and pain, it is used alone or with other herbs that relieve arthralgia.

Used for stomachache and toothache.

dosage and administration ro—rj g, decocted in water for internal use.

precautions

None noted.

Aristolochia mollissima Hance (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

XUN GU FENG

Aristolochia mollissima Hance (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

pharmaceutical name Radix Arnebiae seu Lithospermi english name arnebia root, groomwell root part used dried root

Radix Arnebiae seu Lithospermi is mainly grown in the provinces of Liaoning, Hunan, Hubei, and Xinjiang. It is collected in spring or autumn.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Heart and Liver channels.

functions

Removes Blood Heat, promotes blood circulation, counteracts toxicity, and facilitates eruption of measles.

clinical use and major combinations

For purpura that are dark in color due to presence of toxic Heat in the blood or measles with inadequate eruption, it is used with Periostracum Cicadae (Chan Tui) and Radix Peoniae Rubra (Chi Shao). For measles with inadequate eruption and sore throat, it is used with Fructus Arctii (Niu Bang Zi), Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae (Lian Qiao), and Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis (Shan Dou Gen).

For eczema, scalds, and burns, it is applied externally with Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui), and Sanguis Draconis (Xue Jie).

dosage and administration

3 —to g, decocted in water for oral use, or made into a bolus or powder. For external use, appropriate quantity to be stewed into a soft extract or soaked in vegetable oil and applied topically.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Deficiency of the Spleen with diarrhea.

Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., or Arnebia gutfata Bunge (Fam. Boraginaceae)

ZI CAO

ZI CAO

Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst. (Fam. Boraginaceae) I. Whole plant with flower; 2. Flower; 3. Oppened corolla showing stamen; 4. Pistil; 5. Style

english name sweet wormwood part used dried aerial part

Herba Artemisiae Annuae is produced throughout China. It is collected in summer or autumn, dried in the shade and cut into pieces, or it is used fresh.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter and pungent in flavor, cold in property, acts on the Liver, Gallbladder, and Kidney channels.

functions

Clears Blood Heat, reduces consumptive fever and Summer Heat, stops malarial attacks.

clinical use and major combinations

For malaria with chills and fever, it is used with Radix Scutellariae (Huang Qin) and Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia) in "Herba Artemisiae Annuae and Radix Scutellariae Decoction for Clearing Away Damp Heat from the Gallbladder" (Hao Qin Qing Dan Tang).

For late-stage febrile diseases with accumulation of Heat in the Yin system marked by nocturnal fever, or for lingering low-grade fever after febrile diseases, it is used with Carapax Trionycis Sinensis (Bie Jia), Cortex Moutan (Mu Dan Pi), and Radix Rehmanniae (Sheng Di Huang) in "The Decoction of Herba Artemisiae Annuae and Carapax Amydace Sinensis" (Qing Hao Bie Jia Tang).

For invasion of Summer Heat marked by fever with or without sweating, dizziness, and headache.

To treat infantile fever during summer months, it is used with Cortex Lycii Radicis (Di Gu Pi) and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhi Mu).

dosage and administration

precautions

This herb should not be decocted over a long period of time.

Artemisia annua L. (Fam. Asteraceae)

QING HAO

Artemisiae Capillariae Decoction

Artemisia annua L. (Fam. Asteraceae)

I. Root; 2. Branch with flowers; 3. Enlargment of leaves; 4. Inflorescence; 5. Flower english name argy wormwood part used dried leaf

Folium Artemisiae Argyi is produced in the provinces of middle China. It is collected during spring and summer, and dried in sunlight or in shade. It is used unprepared or carbonized by stir-baking. The leaves and the lateral shoots are cut off and pounded to wool after drying to make argyi wool or moxa for use in moxibustion.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter and pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Liver, Spleen, and Kidney channels.

functions

Warms the channels, arrests bleeding, dispels cold, relieves pain.

clinical use and major combinations

For bleeding. It is mainly used for metrorrhagia due to Cold of the Deficiency type. It is used carbonized by stir-baking, and can be used with donkey-hide gelatin (A Jiao) and Radix Rehman-niae (Sheng Di Huang) in "The Decoction of Donkey-Hide Gelatin and Folium Artemisiae Argyi" (Jiao Ai Tang). For epistaxis and hemoptysis due to invasion of Blood by Pathogenic Heat, it is used with fresh Radix Rehmanniae (Sheng Di Huang), fresh Cacumen Platycladi (Ce Bai Ye).

For cold pain in the lower abdomen, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, and leukorrhagia due to Cold of the Deficiency type in the Lower Heater, it is used with Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui) and Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiang Fu).

This herb can be used in a lotion form for eczema and pruritus, or burned on acupuncture points to warm Blood and Qi, and to relieve pain.

dosage and administration

3 —to g, decocted in water for an oral dose. Proper amount for external use.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Yin Deficient Blood Heat.

Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant., A. Vulgaris L. or A. vulgaris L. var. indica. (Fam. Asteraceae)

AI YE

Artemisia Argyi Flower

Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant., A. Vulgaris L. (Fam. Asteraceae) I. Middle part of the plant; 2. Upper part of the plant; 3. Female flower; 4. Hermaphrodite flower english name virgate wormwood herb part used dried seedling

Herba Artemisiae Scopariae is produced chiefly in Shanxi and Anhui provinces. Collected in spring, it is cleaned, dried in sunlight, and used unprepared.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Bitter in taste, cold in property, acts on the Spleen, Stomach, Liver, and Gallbladder channels.

functions

Clears Pathogenic Damp Heat, relieves jaundice.

clinical use and major combinations

For jaundice, it is used with Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) and Fructus Gardeniae (Zhi Zi) in "The Artemisiae Scopariae Decoction" (Yin Chen Hao Tang); or with Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Zhi Fu Zi) and Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang) in "The Cold Limbs Decoction of Artemisiae Scopariae" (Yin Chen Si Ni Tang).

For eczema and sores with itchiness, it is decocted in water for an oral dose or used for topical application.

It is now used to treat hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and cholelithiasis.

It is used with Fructus Mume for biliary ascariasis.

dosage and administration

10—30 g, decocted in water for an oral dose. Appropriate quantity for external application.

precautions

None noted.

Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. or Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Fam. Asteraceae)

YIN CHEN

Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. or Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Fam. Asteraceae) I. Branch with flowers; 2. Flower; 3. Hermaphrodite flower; 4. Female flower english name

Manchurian wild ginger, asarum part used dried plant

Herba Asari is produced chiefly in the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Shanxi. It is collected in summer, cleaned, and dried in shade.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Lung and Kidney channels.

functions

Dispels Wind, expels Cold to relieve pain, warms the Lung to resolve Fluid, removes nasal obstruction.

clinical use and major combinations

For headaches and migraine headaches due to Wind Cold, it is used alone or with Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi), and Rhizoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo).

For toothache, Herba Asari is used alone or with Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi); for toothaches due to invasion of Wind and Cold, it is used with Gypsum Fibrosum (Shi Gao) and Radix Scutellariae (Huang Qin).

For rheumatic or rheumatoid arthritis, it is used with Rhizoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo) and Radix Saposhnikoviae (Fang Feng).

For invasion of Wind Cold, it is used with Rhi-zoma Notoperygii (Qiang Huo) and Radix Saposh-nikoviae (Fang Feng) in "The Notoperygii Decoction of Nine Ingredients" (Jiu Wei Qiang Huo Tang); or with Herba Ephedrae (Ma Huang) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Zhi Fu Zi).

For retention of Fluid in the Lung with cough, dyspnea, and profuse, watery sputum, it is used with Herba Ephedrae (Ma Huang), Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang), and Fructus Schisandrae (Wu Wei Zi) in "The Minor Decoction of Blue Dragon" (Xiao Qing Long Tang).

For stuffy nose and rhinorrhea with clear nasal discharge, it is used with Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi), Flos Magnoliae (Xin Yi), and Menthae Arvensis (Bo He).

dosage and administration r — 3 g, decocted in water for an oral dose. For local use, the powder of Herba Asari (Xi Xin) may be insufflated into the nasal cavity for sinusitis.

precautions r. Contraindicated for use in patients with headache due to hyperactive Liver Yang.

2. Contraindicated for use in patients with spontaneous sweating due to Qi Deficiency.

3. Contraindicated for use in patients with cough due to Deficiency of Yin of the Lung.

4. It is incompatible with Radix et Rhizoma Veratri (Li Lu).

Asarum heterotropoides F Schum. var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag., or Asarum sieboldii Miq. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

XI XIN

XI XIN

Asarum heterotropoides F Schum. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

Whole plant

Asarum heterotropoides F Schum. (Fam. Aristolochiaceae)

Whole plant english name

Cochin Chinese asparagus root part used tuberous root

Radix Asparagi is produced mainly in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou. Collected in winter, the root is boiled in water, skinned, dried, and sliced for use.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet and bitter in flavor, extremely cold in property, acts on the Lung and Kidney channels.

functions

Clears Lung Heat, nourishes Yin, and reduces Dryness.

clinical use and major combinations

For dry cough with sticky sputum or chronic cough with hemoptysis, it is used with Radix Ophiopogonis (Mai Dong).

For depletion of Fluids by febrile diseases with dry mouth, thirst, and diabetes, it is used with Radix Rehmanniae (Sheng Di Huang) and Radix Ginseng (Ren Shen).

For constipation due to Dry Intestines, it is used with Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui) and Herba Cistanches (Rou Cong Rong).

dosage and administration

6 —15 g, decocted in water for internal use.

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with poor appetite and loose stools due to Cold and Deficient Spleen and Stomach.

Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. (Fam. Liliaceae)

TIAN DONG

Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. (Fam. Liliaceae)

Whole plant english name jiuxiang bug part used dried body

Aspongopus is produced mainly in the provinces of Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Guangxi. It is captured in winter and spring, dried, and stir-baked for use.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Salty in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Spleen, Liver, and Kidney channels.

functions

Regulates the flow of Qi and relieves pain, warms the Kidney, and restores Kidney Yang.

clinical use and major combinations

For epigastric pain with distension due to Cold in the Stomach or due to Qi Stagnation in the Liver and Stomach, it is used with Fructus Meliae Radicis (Chuan Lian Zi), Radix Aucklandiae (Mu Xiang), and Radix Curcumae Yanhusuo (Yan Hu Suo).

For Deficient Kidney Yang with pain of the loins and knees or impotence, it is used with Radix Clematidis (Wei Ling Xian) and Fructus Psoraleae (Bu Gu Zhi).

dosage and administration

precautions

Contraindicated in patients with Internal Heat due to Yin Deficiency.

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