Interpretation Of Maps

The interpretation of maps of disease can have a variety of pitfalls. First, it is natural that the human eye is attracted to bright colours and colour changes. Hence, areas of a map displaying such features may occupy attention. For example, the use of bright red to depict areas of high disease incidence emphasizes these areas, if other colours are subdued. Both colour change and colour attract attention. It is clearly easy to considerably distort map appearance and (potentially) influence map...

Disease Mapping

The concept of disease mapping is not new. In his detailed description of the history of disease mapping, Howe identified several American and British studies dating from the beginning of the 1800s in which maps were employed to demonstrate the distribution of disease.8 Mostly, these maps portrayed the distributions of infectious diseases such as yellow fever in the United States and contagious fevers in Ireland. Possibly the most famous uses of mapping in epidemiology were the studies by John...

Criteria For Causation

A key goal for your study is the establishment of cause and effect between a (putative) pollution source and ill health. A major problem for achieving this is that chemicals are often produced by a variety of sources. For instance, although municipal waste incineration produces at least 25 noxious groups of chemicals antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, carbon monoxide, chromium, cobalt, copper, dioxins and furans, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, lead, magnesium, mercury, nickel,...

The Role Of Disease Mapping In Health Boards

Disease mapping can play an important role in monitoring the health of a community. Plotting new cases of disease on a map is a frequently used technique for monitoring the spread of infectious diseases. The dot map drawn by John Snow in the 1850s is possibly the most renowned example,1 but countless maps exist in offices of the Directorates of Public Health which are charged with monitoring the spread of infectious diseases such as dysentery, meningitis and flu. Dot maps facilitate the search...

What Is Disease Mapping

To answer the question 'What is disease mapping ' we must first consider some definitions. The disease in disease mapping refers to the geographical distribution of a disease within a population. A suitable study for example would be the addresses of people who have Alzheimer's disease in a community. Another example, which has more environmental resonance, would be the geographical distribution of the cases of childhood leukaemia within an area around a nuclear power station. Geographical...

Malaria And Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus An Ecological Study

There is scientific merit in studying the association between insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malaria, since they are both associated with the human leukocyte antigen system. The human leukocyte antigen system is involved in controlling immunological responses, and the association between this system and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has long been established.12 Malaria is the most important natural selective factor on human populations that has been discovered to date.13 In areas...

The Arbroath Multiple Disease Study

The remainder of this chapter uses the format of the template previously outlined for describing an investigation about a suspected point source of pollution. Previous surveys of patterns of environmentally sensitive respiratory disease in central Scotland had demonstrated a high mortality from lung cancer in residential areas of towns downwind of foundries.22-24 The town of Arbroath in eastern Scotland contained a central industrial area which housed a foundry. Complaints of dust and fumes in...