Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma

Anal cancer like cervical cancer is related to human papillomavirus. HIV positive patients are two to six times more likely than HIV negative persons to have anal human papillomavirus infection. Persistence of infection is inversely related to CD4 count. Low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia is more likely to progress to high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV positive patients. However it remains unclear whether HIV directly affects the development of anal carcinoma.

There is a threefold increase in incidence in testicular germ cell tumours in homosexual HIV positive men. Seminoma is much more common than teratoma. Lung cancer of all histological types, non-melanomatous skin cancers, angiosarcomas and paediatric leiomyosarcomas may all be increased in HIV infection. Lung cancers occur at an earlier age and have a poorer prognosis in the HIV positive population.

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