Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

DIY Power Plant Dish System

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DIY Power Plant Dish System Summary


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Phosphoenzyme of High and Low Energy

Different tests confirmed that the acylphosphate formed in the absence of the gradient was the very same acylphosphate residue as that formed with the intact vesicles and gradient 25,26 . Masuda's MSc thesis dealt with the phosphorylation by Pi in the absence of a gradient. Masuda's heart was really in biology and after his PhD he slowly drifted toward the biochemistry of insects. After his postdoc in the USA he joined forces with us at the new biochemistry department, where he became a full professor and organized an excellent group working in Insect Biochemistry. In the meantime, I found out that the apparent Km for Pi increases several fold when a Ca2+ gradient is formed across the membrane or when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 6.0 10,11,27 . Thus, the gradient simply increased the enzyme affinity for Pi. The phosphorylation by Pi measured both in the presence and absence of a gradient were inhibited by the addition of Ca2+ to the medium in the same...

Adaptation to Cancer

Traditional models of medical care are challenged by the growing number of older adults with chronic, progressively worsening illnesses such as COPD. Cognitive - behavioral interventions may help patients adapt to loss of function and, when successfully used in a comprehensive rehabilitation program that includes training in energy conservation and the use of assistive devices, may even help to increase function. As a result, behavioral interventions can improve quality of life for patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

Transcriptional Profiling Of Batch And Fedbatch Proteinfree 293hek Cultures Using Dna Microarray

An endeavor was undertaken to decipher the cellular transcriptional regulation underlying the fed-batch process using microarray. This study presents results focusing on the genes related to amino acid metabolism, tRNA processing and energy metabolism. These processes are intimately related to cell growth and protein production, two issues of importance to bioprocessing. Our results showed that amino acid metabolism enzymes (eg. ASNS, GLUD1, GOT1) and a number of tRNA synthetases (eg. EPRS, YARS, WARS, GARS) were found to have consistent differences in expression patterns between batch and fed-batch, possibly due to differences in nutrient environment of the two cultures. The expression patterns of 3 energy metabolism-related genes, SLC25A5, COX6B and SUCLG2, were also found to be dissimilar in batch compared to fed-batch, indicating disparity in energy efficiency of the cells.

Conformational Search

Conformational search is a process of finding low-energy conformations of molecular systems by varying user-specified dihedral angles. The method involved variation of dihedral angles to generate new structures and then energy minimizing each of these angles. Low-energy unique conformations are stored while high-energy duplicate structures are discarded. Because molecular flexibility is usually due to rotation of unhindered bond dihedral with little change in bond lengths or bond angles, only dihedral angles are considered in the conformational search. Its goal is to determine the global minimum of the potential energy surface of a molecular system. Several approaches have been applied to the problem of determining low-energy conformations of molecules (Howard and Kollman, 1988). These approaches generally consist of the following steps with differences in details 1. Selection of an initial structure The initial structure is the most recently accepted conformation (e.g., energy...

Descriptors Based On 3d Representations

Given that molecular recognition depends on 3D structure, there has been considerable interest in the use of 3D descriptors. Such descriptors require the generation of 3D conformations this can be computationally time-consuming when dealing with large data sets. Furthermore, a single low-energy conformation is usually insufficient and so conformational flexibility should be taken into account. It is usual to combine the descriptors for all of the conformations (sometimes weighted by the relative population of each conformation) to generate an ensemble descriptor that encodes the accessible conformational space of the molecule.

[125IIododeoxyuridine 125IUdR release assay

125l is a low-energy -y- emitter, and is more easily shielded (half-value layer 0.02 mm lead) than 51Cr. The same precautions as indicated for 51Cr manipulation should be used here (Protocol 1). The incorporation of 125l into the thyroid by inhalation is its main biological risk. However, since 3H radioactivity is a low-energy fj-radiation emitter. Conventional plastic and glass containers and surgical gloves protect quite well from this type of radiation. On the other hand, due to its low energy, tritium p-particles must be detected in a liquid scintillation counter, making the sample preparation slightly more laborious. This method is fast, sensitive, and

Structure Generation Programs

One of the main reasons for the surge of interest in 3D database searching in the 1990s was the development of structure-generation program that can take as input a 2D representation of a molecule such as a connection table or a SMILES string and generate a single, low-energy conformation. The two most widely used structure-generation programs are CONCORD Rusinko et al. 1988 and CORINA Gasteiger et al. 1990 . Both of these methods use a broadly similar approach. The first step is to identify features such as rings, bond orders and stereocentres in the molecule. Of particular interest for structure generation are rings and ring systems whereas it is relatively straightforward to construct a sensible 3D structure for the acyclic portions of the molecule from standard bond lengths, bond angles and torsional preferences, this is more difficult for the cyclic parts. Typically, the rings and ring systems are constructed separately using a library of predefined structures and a set of rules...

Methods To Derive 3d Pharmacophores

How can 3D pharmacophores be determined Traditionally, 3D pharmacophore approaches are used when active molecules are known but where the structure of the target receptor is not available. The process of deriving a 3D pharmacophore is called pharmacophore mapping. There are two key issues to consider when deriving 3D pharmacophores. The first issue concerns the conformational flexibility of the molecules and how to take this into account. The second problem concerns the fact that there may be many different combinations of pharmacophoric groups within the molecules. As a consequence, there may be hundreds of potential 3D pharmacophores. The objective is to determine which of these potential pharmacophores best fits the data. In general, the aim is to identify the 3D pharmacophore(s) that contains the largest number of features common to all of the active molecules, and where these common features can be presented by each molecule in a low-energy conformation. Note that the generation...

Teresa Cunha and Raquel Aires Barros 1 Introduction

In batch processes, equilibration is usually done in agitated vessels, and in mixer-settler devices. A few minutes of gentle stirring are normally enough to obtain phase and partition equilibrium (6). The fast approach to equilibrium is owing to the low interfacial tension between the two phases, which enables the formation of very small droplets and thus a large interface for mass transfer with low energy input (6). Phase separation is performed either by settling under gravitational force for fast-settling systems like PEG-salt systems, or by continuously operating common centrifugal separators (6).

The implantable cardioverter defibrillator

Currently available models feature several tachycardia zones with rate detection criteria and tiered therapy (low-energy cardioversion and high-energy defibrillation shocks) independently programmable for each zone. All feature programmable ventricular demand pacing. Extensive diagnostic features are available, including stored ECGs of the rhythm before and after tachycardia detection and treatment. Programmable anti-tachycardia pacing is an option with many models.

Experimental 3d Databases

A straightforward example is the analysis of the CSD to determine how bond lengths depend upon the nature and environment of the atoms involved Allen et al. 1987 . The CSD is also invaluable for providing information about the conformations of specific molecular fragments. For example one may identify the low-energy conformations of a particular ring system or determine the preferred torsion angles about specific bonds, as illustrated in Figure 2-1.

Role of Water Activity in the Process of Energy Transduction by Different Enzymes

A few years later 65-67 , it was found that in the absence of a gradient, a 200-fold decrease in the Pi concentration needed for half-maximal phosphorylation is observed when 40 dimethyl sulfoxide is added to the assay medium. The phosphoenzyme formed in the presence of a low concentration of organic solvent can transfer its phosphate to ADP to form ATP when 400 mM NaCl is added to the medium. The synthesis of ATP is inhibited when the concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide is raised to 60 . These findings indicate that similar to the Ca2+ -ATPase, the conversion of the phosphoenzyme from a low-energy into a high-energy form of the (Na++K+) ATPase is also related to a hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition at the catalytic site

Terminology Techniques and Radiation Biology

It is again important to emphasize that virtually all of the limited toxicity data currently available for APBI were derived from the use of brachytherapy with either interstitial or MammoSite techniques. Early data are becoming available for conformal external beam APBI but little exist for single fraction intraoperative applications of electrons or low-energy photons. As such, this chapter focuses primarily on studies of APBI by brachytherapy.

Pharmacophore Mapping Using Clique Detection

The first stage of the DISCO program which uses clique detection for pharmacophore mapping Martin et al. 1993 Martin 2000 DISCO involves the generation of a series of low-energy conformations for each molecule. The molecule with the smallest number of conformations is chosen as the reference molecule. Each of its conformations is considered in turn as the reference conformation. All the conformations of the other molecules in the set are then compared to this reference conformation and the cliques identified. Having considered each of the conformations of the reference molecule the entire set of cliques is then examined. Any clique that is common to all of the molecules, such that it is matched by at least one conformation of each molecule in the set, is a common pharmacophore.

Practical Aspects of Pharmacophore Mapping

Automated methods for pharmacophore mapping can offer significant benefits, but as with any other technique it is important to pay close attention to the construction of the set of molecules used as input and to the results produced. For most programs an ideal data set will contain a number of high-affinity molecules from several different chemical series that do not possess too much conformational freedom and do not have too many pharmacophoric features. These last two characteristics reduce the complexity of the search space. Stereoisomers or diastereoisomers of the same molecule that have different activities can be particularly informative when searching for a 3D pharmacophore. The output from a pharmacophore-mapping calculation should also be carefully examined to ensure that each active compound has a good geometric fit to the pharmacophore in a reasonable, low-energy conformation. Where appropriate the pharmacophore should also be consistent with any known relationships between...

Clinical Applications of the Emotional Component of Brain Damage

The generally different, predictable affective responses to damage to the left or right hemispheres must be taken into account when interpreting the V-P discrepancy studies involving patients with unilateral brain damage. The emotional behaviors accompanying left lesions, most notably anxiety, depression, carelessness, and low energy level, are likely to have their most significant impact on Wechsler's Perfor

The Thermogenic Function of the Ca2 ATPase Uncoupled Ca2 Efflux and Uncoupled ATP Hydrolysis

The Ca2+ concentrations on the two sides of the membrane are kept below 0.1 mM, the amount of heat released during the hydrolysis of each mol of ATP varies between 9 and 12 kcal mol. This was measured using leaky vesicles that are not able to accumulate Ca2+. In this condition, there is no gradient, and no ramification of the catalytic cycle, and the cleavage of ATP is completed after the hydrolysis of the low-energy phosphoenzyme E2-P. The yield of heat increases to the range of 2032 kcal mol when intact vesicles are used and the Ca2+ concentration in the vesicles' lumen rises to the millimolar range a part of the Ca2+ accumulated leaks through the ATPase leading to the conversion of the osmotic energy into heat 77,82 . The major source of heat, however, is derived from the uncoupled ATPase (reaction 10). The high intravesicular Ca2+ concentration forces the reversal of reactions 5 and 4 leading to accumulation of the high-energy phosphoenzyme 2Ca E1 P, which is then hydrolyzed....

Predicting Protein Structural Features With Artificial Neural Networks

Efforts toward protein structure prediction have come from two general directions and their hybrids. The first, a molecular mechanics approach, assumes that a correctly folded protein occupies a minimum energy conformation, most likely a conformation near the global minimum of free energy. Predictions are based on a forcefield of energy parameters derived from a variety of sources including ab initio and semi-empirical calculations and experimental observations of amino acids and other small molecules Weiner, et al 1984 . Potential energy is obtained by summing the terms due to bonded (distance, angle, torsion) and non-bonded (contact, electrostatic, hydrogen bond) components calculated from these forcefield parameters Weiner & Kollman, 1981 . This potential energy can be minimized as a function of atomic coordinates in order to reach the nearest local minimum. This method is very sensitive to the protein conformation at the beginning of the simulation. one way to address this problem...

Breast Cancer and Radiation Therapy

Older studies of radiotherapy have been criticized for poor technique as well as employing low-energy equipment.4 However, historic studies of patients treated with modern equipment showed a survival advantage. Thus, it is important to define those patients with locally advanced breast cancer whose risk of local recurrence is significant enough to warrant radiotherapy.

Combined Intravenous and Intra Arterial Thrombolysis

The IMS II objective was to continue investigating the feasibility of the combined IV and IA approach to restore cerebral blood flow in acute stroke patients.37 The difference between IMS I and IMS II is that IMS II used the EKOS microcath-eter to deliver the rt-PA into the clot, using microcatheter ultrasound technology. The rationale is that the ultrasound energy delivered in the clot loosens the fibrin strands, increasing the permeability and penetration of the thrombolytic agents. In IMS II, patients aged 18-80 years with a baseline NIHSS 10 were given IV rt-PA (0.6 mg kg, 60 mg maximum over 30 minutes) within 3 hours of stroke onset. Patients with eligible clot in extra- or intracranial cerebral vessels were subsequently administered up to 22 mg IA rt-PA, as well as low-energy ultrasound energy at the clot site using the EKOS ultrasound catheter for a maximum period of 2 hours of infusion or until thrombolysis was achieved. If the EKOS catheter could not access the clot, standard...

Binding Energy and Synthesis of ATP in the Absence of a Ca2 Gradient

ATP Pi exchange in the absence of an H+ gradient. For the Ca2+ -ATPase the synthesis of ATP is initiated by phosphorylation of the ATPase by Pi and we had already shown that this reaction is observed both in the presence and absence of a Ca2+ gradient 25, 26 . The possibility was then raised that in absence of a gradient there was no ATP synthesis because the phos-phoenzyme formed from Pi could not be converted from low into high energy. When a gradient is formed, the Ca2+ concentration inside the vesicles reaches the range of 2-10 mM. We then theorized that the conversion of the phosphoenzyme from low into high energy could be related to the binding of Ca2+ to a site of the ATPase located in a part of the protein facing the vesicles' lumen. To test this hypothesis, we prepared leaky vesicles and incubated them in media containing various Ca2+ concentrations, from a range similar to that found on the outer surface of the vesicles during transport (micromolar) up to the range found in...

Bacteriorhodopsin L Drachev A Kaulen Yu Ovchinnikov and H Khorana

Originally, the direct method of A measurement was developed by L. Drachev and A. Kaulen for bacteriorhodopsin 85 . The A value measured under continuous illumination reached 200 mV, whereas the single turnover-inducing flash resulted in up to 60 mV A 85,86 . The method revealed correlation of main steps of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle and A generation. Playing with mutants obtained by Khorana's group, we identified some crucial amino acid residues involved in the H+ translocation inside the bacteriorhodopsin molecule 87 . The same was done by L. Drachev, A. Semenov, A. Konstantinov, and coworkers for photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodo-pseudomonas viridis 88 . These data combined with X-ray data ofH. Michel and coworkers 89 allowed us to explain the molecular mechanism of A generation by this complex. It proved to be the first A xh+ generator for which the principle of energy conservation was elucidated 25 .

The Story is not Finished

In any case, there is still a lot to do when studying the ther-moregulatory uncoupling, a phenomenon with which I started my scientific carrier so many years ago. Even more, analysis of current literature clearly shows that problem of physiological role of nonphosphorylating respiration is very much more popular now than previously. Discoveries of new UCPs by Ricquier's and Giacobino's groups in tissues other than brown fat strongly stimulated interest not only to the role of uncoupling in heat production but also in the functions of respiration alternative to the ATP production. In my first book published in 1962, I wrote that respiration is involved in four alternative functions namely, energy conservation, energy dissipation, formation of useful substances, and removal of harmful substances 11 . The last function has now become especially popular in relation to defense against oxygen. High concentration of O2 is harmful, being favorable to generation of toxic reactive oxygen...

Free Autogenous Muscle Transplant for Strengthening of the Levator Ani Palmaris Longus Transplant

Levator Plication

Transplanted as a U-shaped sling around the rectum, in close contact with the puborectalis, and anchored to the pubic bone (Figs. 31.6 and 31.7). Denervation allows muscle survival as it initiates a lower level of energy consumption. The graft becomes reinnervated from the puborectalis over a period of 9 months. Central atrophy of the muscle occurs, but the surviving one-third facilitates continence.

Radiobiology of Intraoperative Radiotherapy

A detailed analysis of the radiobiological aspects specific to the Intrabeam system requires consideration of the increased relative biological efficiency (RBE) of the low-energy x-rays, a steep dose-dependency of RBE, and the rate of damage repair during radiotherapy delivery (30-50 minutes). Brenner et al. (1999) have estimated an RBE of about 1.5 for this type of low-energy x-rays. For a complete modeling of RBE, the introduction of the Lea-Catchside time factor (Herskind et al. 2005) is important. Using this equation, an RBE of 1.0 at the applicator surface, of 1.5 at 10 mm, and about 2.0 at 25 mm can be estimated, with the exact value depending on the size of the applicator. The risk of side effects can also calculated, although there are insufficient data as to the impact of the volume of treatment to include this as a factor. (However, since the treatment volume is small for IORT, the risk of side effects will probably be lower than that calculated from this model.) Since the...

The Student Year SE Severin and VA Engelhardt

Unfortunately, I failed to obtain ATP synthesis when ascor-bate-reduced cytochrome c was oxidized by skeletal muscle mitochondria. Under the same conditions, succinate, pyruvate, and malate supported some oxidative phosphorylation. On the other hand, in liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation could be shown also with the ascorbate-cytochrome c system, just as in experiments of Lardy and Lehninger. I was quite disappointed by such a failure of my first attempt to find something new. I could not believe that in muscle, in contrast to liver, cytochrome oxidase is not coupled to energy conservation since substrates other than ascorbate + cytochrome c were oxidized in the two tissues with the same P O ratio. Apparently, muscle mitochondria proved to be less resistant than liver mitochondria to a hypotonic treatment required to allow added cytochrome c to reach the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. In other words, it was easier to uncouple mitochondria from muscle than from liver....

Results of Clinical Trials with the Intrabeam System

Based on the hypothesis that index quadrant irradiation is sufficient, in July 1998 we introduced the technique of TARGIT (Vaidya 2002 Vaidya et al. 2001, 2002b, 2004b) radiotherapy delivered as a single dose using low-energy x-rays targeted to the peritu-moral tissues from within the breast using the Intrabeam device. In patients with small well-differentiated breast cancers, which are now the majority, this could be the sole radiotherapy treatment. In those with a high risk of local recurrence elsewhere in the breast (e.g. lobular carcinoma and those with an extensive intraductal component, EIC), it would avoid any geographical miss, and in combination with EBRT, may even reduce local recurrence.

Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy

With the introduction of FTIR spectrometers in the 1970s, in vivo studies became possible, which was not the case with the grating IR spectrometers because of their low energy throughput. FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the analysis of certain compounds, or to study the interaction between molecules. In dry organisms, the technique is particularly useful because of the 'absence' of water. The absorption of water usually obscures other absorption bands and thus complicates the interpretation of spectra. A considerable advantage of in vivo FTIR spectroscopy is that it permits the analysis of macromolecules in their natural environment as opposed to in a solvent. A disadvantage is that information is obtained on the average vibrational absorption of all molecular groups contributing to the IR-absorption band under study.

Audible Frequency Range

Audible Frequency Range

Pitch is our sense of whether a sound is high (treble) or low (bass). It is determined by the frequency at which the sound source, eardrum, and other parts of the ear vibrate. One movement of a vibrating object back and forth is called a cycle, and the number of cycles per second (cps or hertz, Hz) is called frequency. The lowest note on a piano, for example, is 27.5 Hz, middle C is 261 Hz, and the highest note is 4,176 Hz. The most sensitive human ears can hear frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hz. The infrasonic frequencies below 20 Hz are not detected by the ear, but we sense them through vibrations of the skull and skin, and they play a significant role in our appreciation of music. The inaudible vibrations above 20,000 Hz are ultrasonic. Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies ranging from 1,500 to 4,000 Hz. In this range, we can hear sounds of relatively low energy (volume), whereas sounds above or below this range must be louder to be audible (fig. 16.8). Normal speech falls...

Differing Perceptions of Voluntary and Involuntary Risks

Individuals react differently to health risks that are imposed voluntarily (e.g., lack of physical activity) compared with those acquired involuntarily, often as the result of advancing technology (e.g., a nuclear power plant) (Starr and Whipple 1980). In general, individuals and society have been more willing to accept voluntary risks than involuntary risks. The methods for quantitative risk assessment outlined in Chapter 5 can lead to a more rational basis for risk evaluation. Despite the availability of increasingly sophisticated methods, it is challenging to apply quantitative risk assessment procedures to voluntary and involuntary risks when the process becomes both scientific and political (Starr and Whipple 1980).

Myocardial Metabolism

Europe), are p-FOX inhibitors, which inhibit fatty acid metabolism and promote glycolysis, potentially making the heart more energy efficient. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the potential benefits of trimetazidine in ischemic heart disease (66-69). However, a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial recruiting 19,725 patients with acute myocardial infarction did not demonstrate short- or long-term mortality benefit (72,73). More recently, a small, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study demonstrated improved exercise capacity and ST-segment depression during post-myocardial infarction exercise testing (74).

Gamma Rays and Detection

Museum Board Design

In the electromagnetic energy spectrum, the highest energy photons (shortest wavelength, highest frequency) are gamma rays. Gamma rays arise out of nuclear events during radioactive decay. For in vivo imaging purposes, the best gamma rays are of low energy, in the range of 100-511 keV. Gamma rays in this energy range can be efficiently stopped and therefore measured A typical mobile Anger gamma camera for planar imaging is shown in Fig. 1A. Gamma camera imaging requires the use of a collimator, a solidly constructed gamma-ray attenuator (usually made from lead) that is placed between the subject and the gamma-ray detector. There are various types of collimators, some more specific for low-energy gamma rays, while other are specific for higher ranges of gamma-ray energies. A pinhole collimator and parallel-hole collimator is shown in Figs. IB and ID, respectively. The pinhole collimator has a small round hole at the end (inset, Fig. 1C) that allows projection of the gamma rays onto the...

Estimation Of Energy Requirements

Energy requirements of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) have been grossly overestimated in the past and energy intakes of more than 50 kcal kg of body weight (BW) per day (ie, about 100 above resting energy expenditure (REE) haven been advocated 6 . Adverse effects of overfeeding have been extensively documented during the last decades, and it should be noted that energy intake must not exceed the actual energy consumption. Energy requirements can be calculated with sufficient accuracy by standard formulas such as the Harris Benedict equation. Calculated REE should be multiplied with a stress factor to correct for hypermetabolic disease however, even in hypercatabolic conditions such as sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, energy requirements rarely exceed 1.3 times calculated REE 1 .

The Maximum Likelihood Method for Pharmacophore Mapping

The maximum likelihood method Catalyst HipHop Barnum et al. 1996 Catalyst also uses a pre-calculated set of low-energy conformations. Typically, these are obtained using poling, a conformational search method designed to generate a relatively small set of conformations that covers pharmacophore space Smellie et al. 1995a, b . The poling method adds an additional penalty term to the energy function during the minimisation part of the conformational analysis. This penalty term has the effect of pushing the conformation away from those found previously.

Glucoseinduced conformational change to explain GK cooperativity

Crystal structures of the apo form of GK and the liganded forms helped confirm the proposals regarding how cooperativity with respect to glucose is achieved 7 . The apo structure was found to exist in a low-energy super-open conformation, which was determined to be an inactive conformation because certain critical residues were absent from the active site. Upon binding glucose, a slow conformational change takes place to a higher-energy structure, the open form''. A subsequent fast conformational change to the closed form'' gives a complex that is able to bind the Mg ATP2- cofactor, leading to the occurrence of the catalytic reaction and generation and release of products, G-6-P and ADP. The catalytic cycle continues in the fast cycle as long as glucose concentrations remain high, bypassing the low-energy super-open conformation, and involves a reduced degree of protein dynamics relative to the slow cycle. When the glucose concentration drops, the conformation slowly relaxes back to...


Antony Leslie (Tony) Wilson was born in Brighton in 1929 and educated at Vardean Grammar School and Kings College, London, where he took an honours degree in chemistry. He worked for eighteen years at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Salwick and the Central Electricity Research Laboratories, Leather-head, before joining the Water Research Association at Medmenham later to become a constituent laboratory of the Water Research Centre in 1968. He remained with the Centre until his retirement in 1980, when he held the position of Manager of the Analysis and Instrumentation Division.

Physical Openness

An energy balance equation for ecosystems might be written as follows in accordance with the principle of energy conservation The concept exergy was introduced by Rant (1953) to express the work capacity of a system relative to its environment (see details presented in Wall, 1977 Szargut et al., 1988). It was particularly useful when the efficiencies of a power plant or the energy transfer should be expressed. We have therefore


Lynette Hirschman and Chris Overton for careful reading of early drafts and, along with Drs. Erik Cheever, Rebecca Passonneau, and Carl Weir, for many helpful discussions. The author is also grateful to Dr. Ross Overbeek and his student Ron Taylor, and to Drs. Mick Noordewier and Jude Shavlik, for acquainting him with their work in progress. Invaluable comments and suggestions were provided by Jim Tis-dall in the area of formal language theory. A special debt is owed to Dr. Allen Sears for his enthusiastic patronage of these efforts. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, under genome grant number DE-FG02-90ER60998.


Industrial concentration methods, such as evaporation and solvent extraction, are unsuitable for dewatering enzymes because of their potential for thermal or chemical denaturation, and evaporation gives rise to high energy costs. Chromatography is generally uneconomical for concentrating feed enzymes, for reasons detailed below. The most common concentration technique in use today for industrial enzymes is ultrafiltration (UF), using hydrophilic tangential flow membranes with molecular weight cutoffs in the range of 10,000-100,000 Da. UF fluxes and yields are often significantly enhanced by removal or omission upstream of potential membrane foulants such as certain polysaccharides or anti-foams. Precipitation, crystallization and extraction can also be used for concentration, but are more typically utilized as purification techniques, and therefore will be discussed below.

Cavity Theories

The air-wall chamber is restricted to the measurement of exposure in a small volume of air, within an assumed larger volume of solid air. Low energy photons, which interact primarily by photoelectric and Compton processes, are assumed to maintain the condition of Charged Particle Equilibrium. The absorbed dose in air can then be obtained through the use of the W-value and the relations given in section 7.3. Cavity theories, of which the most important is the Bragg-Gray theory, deal with the conditions and coefficients that are required in order to find the absorbed dose in a medium other than air. In particular, they enable the CPE condition to be relaxed so that dose can be determined in regions where the dose is changing rapidly. Two of these, discussed in section 7.2, relate to the build-up region of high energy beams and the neighbourhood of interfaces irradiated by low energy photons.


Dysthymia differs from major depression in that it is generally more chronic and is defined by fewer symptoms. The DSM-IV criteria for dysthymic disorder include a depressed mood for most days for at least 2 years in adults or at least 1 year in children and adolescents. In addition, two or more of the following six symptoms must be present poor appetite or overeating, trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, low energy or fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. The initial 2-year period must not have included a major depressive episode and the 2-year period of depression must not have been broken by a period of normal mood lasting more than 2 months.

Dynamics Simulation

Molecules are dynamic, undergoing vibrations and rotations continually. The static picture of molecular structure provided by MM therefore is not realistic. Flexibility and motion are clearly important to the biological functioning of proteins and nucleic acids. These molecules are not static structures, but exhibit a variety of complex motions both in solution and in the crystalline state. The most commonly employed simulation method used to study the motion of protein and nucleic acid on the atomic level is the molecular dynamics (MolD) method (McCammon and Harvey, 1987). It is a simulation procedure consisting of the computation of the motion of atoms in a molecule according to Newton's laws of motion. The forces acting on the atoms, required to simulate their motions, are generally calculated using molecular mechanics force fields. Rather than being confined to a single low-energy conformation, MolD allows the sampling of a thermally distributed range of intramolecular...


Autoradiography is an image formed on photographic film by radiation from a radioactive substance. The radioactive substance could be from a radiometric assay or from metabolic labelling of tissue. In the case of biochemical assays, the labelled products are separated from the radioactive substrates either by extraction or separation using chromatographic techniques, commonly thin layer chromatography (TLC see also Sec. C.2). The TLC plates can then be directly exposed to the photographic plates. In the case of labelled tissues, the compound of interest that could be a metabolite or nucleic acid is radiolabelled and incubated with the tissue. The tissue is washed and then exposed to the photographic plates. The localisation of the radioactive spot indicates the localisation of the molecules of interest. In specialised cases such as Western blots or Southern blots, the samples are probed with a radioactive probe or enzyme that induces the formation of photons. This will again darken...


Rate of 5 pulses s through a flexible 1-mm optical fiber. It takes approx 20 pulses to create a transmural channel. Despite the low energy level and short pulse duration, very high levels of peak power are delivered to the tissue so that with each pulse there is an explosion (Fig. 4). Additionally, the fiber is advanced manually through the myocardium, and it is therefore impossible to know whether the channel is being created by the kinetic energy delivered via the mechanical effects of the fiber or whether there has been enough time for thermal dissipation prior to the next pulse.

Cb1r Antagonists

Bicyclic such as 5 were prepared as part of a program to explore different spatial orientations of the key pharmacophoric groups in rimonabant 20 . The N6 1-piperidinyl derivative 5 and rimonabant were equipotent in the binding assay despite poor overlap of the N6 group in the former compound with the 1-piperidinyl group in the proposed low energy conformer of the latter compound 21 . Optimization of the SAR in 5 led to the discovery of the N6 trifluoroethyl analog 6 (hCB1R K 0.3 nM). Pharmacokinetic analysis of 6 revealed bioavailability of 62 in the rat and a brain-to-plasma (B P) ratio of 7.2 at the 1.5 h time-point. Compound 6 decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner following oral administration in a fasting-induced


Endothelins are a family of 21-amino acid peptides synthesized by endothelial cells and some tumors (67,68). Endothelins are potent regulators of vascular tones (69). In addition, mitogenic activity of endothelin on vascular smooth muscle and stromal fibroblasts have been demonstrated (68,70,71). Short term fasting or chronic dietary restriction in rats has been found to decrease plasma endothelin levels (72), in contrast to many other types of pathophysiologic stressors previously shown to increase plasma endothelin level (73-77). Perhaps altered endothelin expression may participate in homeostatic adjustments related to the need for overall host energy conservation during chronic restriction. How endothelin may modulate tumor vascularity and blood flow under conditions of dietary restriction remains to be explored.

Abc 1630 Abc 1629

Alkaliphiles maintain a cytoplasmic pH lower than that of the outside pH. The proton motive force is about -50 mV at pH 10.5, which is the optimum pH value for many alkaliphiles, and this value is not sufficient to thrive in an alkaline milieu. Therefore, alkaliphiles must develop strategies for energy conservation. One possibility is to change the coupling ion, such as Na+-coupled ATPase. Krulwich and her colleagues reported, however, that respiratory chains that pump H + ion outward and H +-coupled ATP synthases are almost the same as these of neutrophilic microorganisms. Another possibility is that protons produced by electron transfer systems are not released into free solution but directly coupled to ATP synthase. Recently, Wang et al. (2004) showed that ATP synthesis at pH 10.5 in B. pseudofirmus OF4 depended upon alkaliphile-specific feature in the proton pathway through a- and c-subunits ATP synthase. They introduced site-directed changes in the a- and c subunits of the ATP...


Mcgraw Respiratory

Inspiration requires a muscular effort and therefore an expenditure of ATP and calories. By contrast, normal expiration during quiet breathing is an energy-saving passive process that requires little muscular contraction other than a braking action explained shortly. Expiration is achieved by the elasticity of the lungs and thoracic cage the tendency to return to their original dimensions when released from tension. The bronchial tree has a substantial amount of elastic connective tissue in its walls. The attachments of the ribs to the spine and sternum, and the tendons of the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles, also have a degree of elasticity that causes them to spring back when muscular contraction ceases. As these structures recoil, the thoracic cage diminishes in size. In accordance with Boyle's law, this raises the intrapulmonary pressure it peaks at about +3 mmHg and expels air from the lungs (fig. 22.13). Diseases that reduce pulmonary elasticity interfere with...


Sliding Filament Theory Steps

Myosin releases the ADP and phosphate and flexes into a bent, low-energy position, tugging the thin filament along with it. This is called the power stroke. The head remains bound to actin until it binds a new ATP. being similar to the way you would pull in a boat anchor hand over hand. When the myosin head cocks, it is like your hand reaching out to grasp the anchor rope. When it flexes back into the low-energy position, it is like your elbow flexing to pull on the rope and draw the anchor up a little bit. When you let go of the rope with one hand, you hold onto it with the other, alternating hands until the anchor is pulled in. Similarly, when one myosin head releases the actin in preparation for the recovery stroke,


Phytol Tail

The general reaction for photosynthesis, where water is the electron donor, can be written as in Eq. (5.7). Extraction of electrons from water yields molecular oxygen. Therefore, the oxygen that is critical for aerobic respiration is simply a photosynthetic by-product. The low-energy electrons obtained from water are excited by energy from light and stored as high-energy electrons in NADPH. The stored electrons are then used to reduce carbon dioxide, producing a unit of carbohydrate (CH2O). For a couple of billion years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was the primary source of electrons. Today, H2S serves as an electron source for only some bacteria.

Antiemetic Therapy

The pulse generator delivers electrical stimuli to the stomach wall with a higher frequency (12 cpm) than the intrinsic gastric slow wave (2.0 to 4.0 cpm), but uses low energy levels (300 sec pulse width and 4 to 5 mA). The most commonly seen complication has been pacemaker hardware infection requiring device removal. This has been observed in about 5 of patients, most of whom have been diabetics. The battery life for the device is about 8 years.* In general, the effect of high frequency-low energy pacing on gastric contractility is unclear, as is the mechanism of action in decreasing symptomatology. Accelerations in gastric emptying times have been noted in some patients (about 20 ), however, this response is unpredictable and the majority of treated patients continue to have unchanged and abnormal gastric emptying times after implantation. Furthermore, there has been poor correlation between the changes in symptoms and gastric emptying. Hence there is a need for small volume meals...


High Transmission Cellular Grids

Grids specifically designed for mammography are necessary since the materials and construction of general radiographic grids result in excessive attenuation of the unscattered portion of the low-energy mammographic x-ray beam, as well as increased geometric unsharpness due to the thickness of the grid assembly (ACR, 1993 Feig, 1987 Friedrich and Weskamp, 1978 NCRP, 1986). Special purpose mammographic grids are extremely thin, with lead grid strips, or septa, only about 1 mm in height. The septa are typically 16 pm thick and the interspaces are about 300 pm wide (Feig, 1987). The grid ratio (the height of septa relative to the distance between the septa) is usually in the range of 4 1 to 5 1 and the grid should have about 32 septa (or lines ) per centimeter. To minimize attenuation of the primary (image forming) radiation and

Ray Unit

While a variety of x-ray units have been used in mammography since its inception (Bassett et al., 1992 Gold, 1992 Vyborny and Schmidt, 1989), it is now widely recognized that quality mammog-raphy requires a dedicated mammographic x-ray unit (ACR, 1993 DHHS, 1987 Haus, 1990 Yaffe, 1991). In order to meet the stringent imaging needs of mammography such a unit must be equipped with a variety of essential features discussed in this Section. These include a small focal spot coupled with a relatively long source-to-image-receptor distance (SID) to minimize blur a low energy x-ray beam and a specialized mammographic grid to provide high subject contrast and specialized equipment for firm, uniform compression. Without these features, it is almost impossible to visualize small nonpalpable masses and very small microcalcifications, often the only indications of early carcinoma. Use of non-dedicated radiographic equipment can result in missing many cancers and can lead to unwarranted biopsies,...

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