Fish Farming Guide

Tilapia Farming Guide

The Tilapia Industry has an amazingly high demand in the United States. So high, in fact, that the United States has to import Tilapia from Thailand. The Industry makes about 5 billion dollars a year Even if you could get in on 1% of that industry, you'd be sitting on $50 million dollars. Tilapia farming is the wave of the future. NOW is the time to get in on that industry while the competition is low! J.T. Abney, author of the acclaimed book Shrimp Farming Guide now shares the secrets of Tilapia farming in his new book Tilapia Farming Guide. Abney is not selling a getrich-quick scam. His experience comes from a lifetime of work in the Gulf of Mexico, and generations of family experience working fishing and farming in the Gulf. His book covers all the bases on how to raise, feed, and make money off your Tilapia farm. His advice is real, professional advice. If you're looking to make money with no work, look elsewhere. If you want to work hard to get rich honestly, look to the Tilapia farms! Read more here...

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Enteric Septicaemia Of Catfish Edwardsiellaictalur1

Enteric septicaemia of catfish, caused by E. ictaluri, was first reported by Hawke (1979), but it has become the most important infectious disease of the catfish industry in the USA especially in the south-east (A.J. Mitchell, Fish Farming Research Laboratory, Stuttgart, Arkansas, USA, personal communication). Estimates of the cost of the disease to the catfish industry have been in the US l0s of millions annually, but a carefully calculated assessment of losses is not available. Because of its comparatively narrow host specificity, ESC is not a great economic problem in regions where channel catfish are not cultured.

Effectiveness of Microbial Phytase in Fish Diets

Feed ingredients of plant origin are being used in greater amounts in intensive fish farming. Like pigs and poultry, several species of fish utilize only one-third of the phytate P in plant feedstuffs. The addition of inorganic P is necessary to meet the P needs of the fish for normal growth. It has also been observed that high dietary phytate levels lead to depressed growth, feed intake and protein utilization, which may be a result ofphytate complexing with cations in the gastrointestinal tract so that Zn, protein and energy bioavailability are reduced (Spinelli etal., 1983 Richardson et al, 1985, 1986 McClain and Gatlin, 1988).

Impaired Growth Performance

The established growth performance measures are considerably easier to apply to evaluate captive stocks. In most aquacultural situations, 'optimal' growth performance for a given species reared under established conditions on a particular diet is easy to measure, and thus any reduction in growth rate can be readily identified. However, even for these well-controlled situations, the value of impaired growth as a diagnostic tool is limited as it is only a preliminary indicator of a problem. Under controlled conditions, such as those found in many fish-farming situations, the quality and quantity of dietary sources probably exert the most significant influence on growth performance. A reduced growth rate, under these conditions, is indicative of reduced food intake, impaired digestion and or assimilation, or altered metabolism resulting in a reduced efficiency of nutrient assimilation. Specific identification of the cause is not possible and other diagnostic methodologies are required to...

Germination and growth

Germination and growth of pathogenic species of Saprolegnia are rapid when compared with saprophytic members of the genus and may be determined by the nutrient levels of the supporting medium (Willoughby et al, 1983). Saprophytic species, including S. diclina and S. ferax, were normally unable to germinate in sterilized lake water, whereas isolates from salmonid lesions, including S. diclina type 1 and Saprolegnia sp., germinated readily in the same media (Willoughby et al, 1983). The rate of germination of these strains was enhanced two to fivefold in water taken from the effluent of a salmonid fish farm, whereas saprophytic isolates failed to germinate.

Infectious equine arteritis virus See Equine arteritis virus

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) The type species of the genus Novirhabdovirus. Causes necrosis of hematopoietic tissues of spleen and anterior kidney in trout and salmon in North America, Europe, Korea, Taiwan, Japan and mainland China. Occurs as epidemic disease in fish hatcheries. The fish do not feed and often have a dark red subdermal lesion dorsally located at the back of the head. Replicates in fat head minnow cells or other fish cell lines with CPE. Studies in rainbow trout in fish hatcheries in Idaho show that there is wide genetic diversity amongst IHNV populations. Synonyms chinook salmon virus Oregon sockeye disease virus.

Common Water Chemistry Diseases in Aquaculture Associated with Water Recirculation or Reuse

Oxygen is perhaps the greatest determinant of water flow demands of a fish farm. Use of supplemental oxygen is common in situations of serial reuse of water or true recirculation. The less passive the process of re-oxygenation, the greater the inherent risk of failure and disaster. Low dissolved oxygen is a critical primary rule-out during the clinical investigation of respiratory distress syndrome. Marginal oxygen levels can also contribute to mortality rates during and after episodes of infectious gill diseases since uptake efficiency across the damaged gills can be severely affected. Additionally, unexpected mortality spikes in the aftermath of static bath chemical treatments or particularly intense feeding periods are often traced to marginal oxygen levels.

General Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Intensive Aquaculture and Relationship to Noninfectious Disorders

Beyond preconditioning practices, prophylactic treatments, and post transfer management, the actual mechanics of the transfer process also decide transfer success (Pennell, 1991). Most important at this stage, smolt meet a new marine environment and have a limited adjustment period. Depending on the site rotation practices they may also come in close contact with grow-out fish (or their faecal contaminants). Since the latter have spent a year in the marine environment they can be significant disease reservoirs. Asymptomatic carriage of disease in fish, and prolonged presence of pathogens in fish farm sediments have been frequently shown for infectious diseases important to salmon culture (Busch and Lingg, 1975 McCarthy and Roberts, 1980 Enger et al., 1991). Smolt which are not adapting well to seawater, a significant non-infectious disease problem in itself which is discussed later in this chapter, are often the first ones to break with endemic infectious diseases...

Bacterial antagonists

Several studies have identified bacterial antagonists to S. parasitica and a variety of Pythium and Rhizophthora species (Hatai and Willoughby, 1988 Petersen et al, 1994). Hatai and Willoughby (1988) reported that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens could strongly inhibit the radial growth of S. parasitica in vitro, and natural control might therefore be feasible. Fungal inhibition attributed to this bacterial antagonist has been suggested to result from the production of an antibiotic by the bacteria (Gurusiddaiah et al., 1986) or from an efficient iron-capturing siderophore that deprives the fungus of this essential ion (Weller and Cook, 1983). However, Bly et al. (1997) reported that inhibition was not associated with culture supernatants, but might depend on the secretion of a chemical or nutrient acting between the bacteria and the Saprolegnia. It is possible that the fungus may remove a nutrient or secrete a chemical that the bacteria recognize, and then react by secreting an...

Pigeon herpesvirus See columbid herpesvirus

Pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Causes hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles and kidneys of young pike, Esox lucius, and red swollen areas are visible on the trunk, usually above the pelvic fins. Caused a severe fatal disease in Dutch fish hatcheries. Isolated from diseased pike fry in FHM cells. CPE evident in 40 h. Pathogenic on injection into young pike. In the presence of complement it can be neutralized by antiserum to spring viremia of carp virus. Synonyms grass carp rhabdovirus red disease virus hydrocephalus of pike virus.

New Foods and New Factories

If Elliot Entis and his colleagues have their way, that prediction will turn out to be terribly wrong. They are fish farmers, not fishermen, fish farmers. And they have a fish story that trumps any of the yarns one might hear on the docks of Key West. The difference is that they have the pictures to prove it. Their company, A F Protein, Inc., based in Waltham, Massachusetts, is committed to using transgenic techniques to change the way that the Atlantic salmon (as well as several other species, including trout), one of the most popular and expensive fish, reach your dinner table. The goal at A F Protein is to grow much bigger salmon, much more quickly, in a much cleaner environment, and at a much lower cost. Since its scientists developed a transgenic approach to creating bigger salmon in the mid-1990s, the company has made impressive progress. At the end of their first year of life, its transgenic salmon are four to six times heavier than are one-year-old Atlantic salmon netted in...

Treatment and protection

Channel catfish are less susceptible to E. ictaluri, and possibly other potential pathogens, in water with salinity of up to 4000 mg l-1 (G. Whitis, Aquaculture Extensionist, Alabama Fish Farming Center, Greensboro, Alabama, 1995, personal communication). In view of this observation, Plumb and Shoemaker (1995) exposed an E. ictaluri carrier population (about 10 incidence in 15 C water) of channel catfish to waters containing 0-3000 mg l-1 NaCl and raised the temperature to 25 C. Mortality in 0 and 100 mg NaCl l-1 were 95-100 and the mortality in the populations transferred to water with over 1000 mg NaCl l-1 were 17-42 . It is apparent that many factors, including genetics, nutrition and environmental quality, affect the susceptibility of channel catfish to E. ictaluri, the reasons for which are poorly understood.

Plating efficiency See efficiency of plating

Pleuronectid herpesvirus (PiHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. First recognized in 1978 among young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in a fish farm in Scotland, but since then also recognized in Wales. The fish develop anorexia and lethargy and heavy mortality occurs. The only signs of infection are pathological changes in epithelial cells of the skin and gills where giant cells are seen containing herpesvirus-like particles. Virus isolation has not been reported. Synonyms herpesvirus scophthalmus turbot herpesvirus.


Of two molecules of positive sense single-stranded RNA, both of which lack poly A tails at their 3' ends. The sizes of the RNAs, both of which are required for replication, are 3.1 kb and 1.4 kb. Replication occurs in the cytoplasm and involves a third subgenomic RNA species 0.4 kb in length. The viruses cause significant problems in commercial fish hatcheries. Infected fish develop a vacuo-lating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with behavioral abnormalities and high mortality. Viral antigens can be found in eggs, larvae and ovaries of hatchery-reared and wild spawner fish, suggesting that transmission of the virus is both horizontal and vertical.

Transmission of the disease and epidemiology

In the classic Culture and Diseases of Game Fishes, Davis (1953) makes the following reference to M'Gonigle's information (1940) on alleviating acute catarrhal enteritis, now assumed to be IPN 'M'Gonigle recommends that affected fish be planted in small streams where they can get natural food such as insect larvae. Since the disease is not due to infection by animal parasites or bacteria, liberation of the fish in natural waters can do no harm.' It is unknown how many fish farmers adhered to this practice, which was promulgated before the discovery of virus infections in teleosts. It is possible that the panzootic nature of aquatic birnaviruses may be due in part to this type of remedy for a disease of unknown aetiology. present in the 1940s and mortalities were in excess of 90 in brook trout by the late 1970s, the disease was still present, but mortality had dropped to around 40 (L. McCullogh, personal communication). Conversely, a brook trout hatchery known to have IPNV present at...

Immunological detection techniques

The introduction of monoclonal antibodies and ELISAs, which allow for more specific assays that can be semiautomated. As a result, a number of ELISAs have been developed for screening of clinical samples for signs of A. salmonicida (Bernoth, 1997b Table 10.8). In a comparison of ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), similar to the fluorescent antibody microscopy (FAM) technique, Lallier et al. (1990) found that ELISA was more sensitive than IFAT when tested on pure cultures of A. salmonicida and both methods were found to be more sensitive than bacteriological culture. However, it has been argued that the use of IFAT coupled with experience overcomes the problems of lesser specificity of this technique, making it comparable to ELISA (E.-M. Bernoth, CSIRO, 1995, personal communication). Perhaps the most useful application of immunological assays would be in the detection of covert A. salmonicida infections, and a number of ELISA tests have been applied for this...

The case studies

The sixth system is an artificial one, located in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice, i.e., the Figheri basin. Fish farming basins consist of peripheral areas of lagoon surrounded by banks in which local species of fish and crustaceans are raised. Salt water from the sea and freshwater from canals and rivers are regulated by locks and drains. The fishes of highest demand raised in basins are Dicentrarchus labrax (bass) and Sparus auratus. Various types of mullet are also raised, as well as eels and mollusks.


A dose of 200 mg kg1 body weight for 21 days appears to be the most effective treatment (Moffitt, 1992). Use of erythromycin in the USA is somewhat limited, since it has not been registered as a therapeutic drug for use in fish culture. It is only available as an investigational new animal drug (INAD) through the Food and Drug Administration (Moffitt, 1992). Even if erythro-mycin is approved, chemotherapy is still problematic as erythromycin is not completely effective in curing infected fish or preventing vertical transmission in fish (Austin, 1985 Brown et al., 1990). Additionally, the demonstration of bacterial resistance in vitro to erythromycin (Bell et al., 1988), the strictly bacteriostatic mechanism of action and the widespread prophylactic treatment of juvenile fish and adult brood stock increase the probability that the emergence of resistant strains may be a future concern.

Adult segregation

This control method is based on the premise that progenies from disease-free adults or, perhaps, those with low levels of infection have decreased prevalence of BKD if intraovum transmission is the predominant route of infection. Reports on this approach appear promising. Pascho et al. (1991b) studied the effects of adult segregation and rearing of spring chinook salmon returning to Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. Gametes were segregated into two groups and offspring were reared separately, based on whether they came from spawners with high or low levels of R. salmoninarum as determined by ELISA and FAT. Offspring from highly infected adults had a higher cumulative pond mortality (17 vs. 5 ) and higher prevalence of infection at the time of release (85 vs. 62 ) than offspring from the adults with low antigen levels. The authors suggested that segregation may be a useful method to control BKD, even in situations where untreated hatchery water is used. However, the...

The virus

Gambar Virus Channel Catfish Virus

The virus infectivity is inactivated by ether, chloroform and glycerol. It is sensitive to acid pH, heat and UV light and is unstable in sea water (Robin and Rodrigue, 1980a). Under simulated farm pond conditions, CCV survives less than 24 h on dried concrete chips and less than 48 h on glass cover slips or dried fishnets and is immediately inactivated by pond mud (Plumb, 1974). The finding of Brady and Ellender (1982) that soil sediment rapidly absorbs the virus helps explain the immediate inactivation by pond mud. In pond water the virus persists for about 2 days at 25 C and about 28 days at 4 C, but somewhat longer in dechlorinated tap water (Plumb et al., 1973).


The success of oil-adjuvant vaccines for the control of furunculosis in commercial fish farming has had a number of side-effects, which should also be considered. Stress is the major precipitating factor associated with furunculosis. In many situations, the fear of furunculosis has been a significant factor in the introduction of husbandry practices that were aimed at reducing stress. In particular, furunculosis has exerted a major constraint on stocking densities. The effective removal, by vaccination, of the fear of furunculosis may result in the relaxation of some farm practices, particularly when these place economic constraints on the operation of a farm. It is axiomatic that any increase in stress levels will ultimately result in reduction in fish health. The effective control of furunculosis may, therefore, become the predisposing factor for another disease. A second side-effect of the efficiency of modern vaccination is that funding for research into furunculosis has been...

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