Online Fitness Training Programs

30 Minutes Body

30 Minute Body is a program created to enable the use of natural methods in the reduction of the belly fat with just a well-planned guide on the different exercises that will help in the reduction of body fat and still give them a great body. This weight- loss program encourages the users to engage in this trick as early as possible before they move out for their day to day activities. It is planned towards the dropping of stubborn body fats and the prevention of any heart attack, stroke and deadly disease. It is focused on giving the users rock body. The plan was not created to be a quick fix, which does not rely on food. In fact, like every belly fat programs, it requires their full attention, being constant, and their discipline. For the period of its usage, the users will have the opportunity to eat foods they love and still not feel pressured. More so, all they will be required to do is to have a workout for 30 minutes 3 times a day. The methods employed in this book are natural ones that have been tested scientifically. The system comes as a digital book. More here...

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30 Minutes Body Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this manual, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I bought a copy myself to figure out what all the publicity was about.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Theory of GAs With Endogenous Fitness

In many of the scientific models we have looked at, fitness is not externally imposed but instead arises endogenously it is reflected, for example, by the longevity and the fertility of an individual. Up to now, almost all work in GA theory has assumed exogenous rather than endogenous fitness functions. Holland (1994) has recently done some theoretical work on GA behavior with endogenous fitness in the context of Echo, using notions such a flow-matrix for describing the transmission of useful genetic building blocks from generation to generation. This is only a first step in theoretically analyzing such systems.

Fitness Proportionate Selection with Roulette Wheel and Stochastic Universal Sampling

Holland's original GA used fitness-proportionate selection, in which the expected value of an individual (i.e., the expected number of times an individual will be selected to reproduce) is that individual's fitness divided by the average fitness of the population. The most common method for implementing this is roulette wheel sampling, described in chapter 1 each individual is assigned a slice of a circular roulette wheel, the size of the slice being proportional to the individual's fitness. The wheel is spun N times, where N is the number of individuals in the population. On each spin, the individual under the wheel's marker is selected to be in the pool of parents for the next generation. This method can be implemented as follows SUS does not solve the major problems with fitness-proportionate selection. Typically, early in the search the fitness variance in the population is high and a small number of individuals are much fitter than the others. Under fitness-proportionate...

Examples of Fitness Functions

Here the candidate solutions are values of y, which can be encoded as bit strings representing real numbers. The fitness calculation translates a given bit string x into a real number y and then evaluates the function at that value. The fitness of a string is the function value at that point. where each letter represents one of 20 possible amino acids. One way to define the fitness of a candidate sequence is as the negative of the potential energy of the sequence with respect to the desired structure. The potential energy is a measure of how much physical resistance the sequence would put up if forced to be folded into the desired structure the lower the potential energy, the higher the fitness. Of course one would not want to physically force every sequence in the population into the desired structure and measure its resistance this would be very difficult, if not impossible. Instead, given a sequence and a desired structure (and knowing some of the relevant...

Termans Stanford Binet

The fearful role played by mental deficiency in the production of vice, crime, and delinquency (p. 9). Terman also saw the potential for using intelligence tests with adults for determining vocational fitness, but, again, he emphasized employing a psychologist to weed out the unfit or to determine the minimum 'intelligence quotient' necessary for success in each leading occupation

Aetiological Classification

Severe or even milder form than that of the other individuals in the family. Regarding sporadic cases, in whom the disease tends to occur in a severe form and frequently with a higher mortality rate and reduced reproductive fitness, the recurrence risk can be that of the general population. However, the absence of cases with gonadal or germinal mosaicism does not mean that it can not exist, so the family should be informed about the substantial risk of recurrence 9 .

Elements Of Genetic Algorithms

It turns out that there is no rigorous definition of genetic algorithm accepted by all in the evolutionary-computation community that differentiates GAs from other evolutionary computation methods. However, it can be said that most methods called GAs have at least the following elements in common populations of chromosomes, selection according to fitness, crossover to produce new offspring, and random mutation of new offspring.Inversion Holland's fourth element of GAs is rarely used in today's implementations, and its advantages, if any, are not well established. (Inversion will be discussed at length in chapter 5.) The chromosomes in a GA population typically take the form of bit strings. Each locus in the chromosome has two possible alleles 0 and 1. Each chromosome can be thought of as a point in the search space of candidate solutions. The GA processes populations of chromosomes, successively replacing one such population with another. The GA most often requires a fitness function...

Anaesthetic problems

In the first week after athletic competition, endurance athletes can have elevated heart-specific serum CK-MB enzyme levels.Thus, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of such investigations. However, athletes are not immune from heart disease and sudden deaths during exercise have been caused by previously undiagnosed cardiomyopathies (Editorial 1992, Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness 1995).

Adaptation to Cancer

In comparison to the educational control group, rehabilitation patients demonstrated a significant increase in exercise endurance (82 vs. 11 ), maximal exercise workload (32 vs. 14 ), and peak VO2, a measure of cardiovascular fitness (8 vs. 2 ). These changes in exercise performance were associated with significant improvement in symptoms of perceived breathlessness and muscle fatigue during exercise.

Engagement in Cognitive Activities and Maintenance of Intelligence

However, as Hultsch et al. (1999) pointed out, both the Schaie and Arbuckle data used lifestyle criteria that are confounded with numerous factors such as socioeconomic status and education, raising the possibility that differences in initial ability level were largely responsible for producing the apparent maintenance of intellectual ability in old age. Consequently, many of the longitudinal findings, like the cross-sectional findings, prevent a clear understanding of cause versus effect. Probably the best data for addressing the causality issue are provided by the Victoria Longitudinal Study of 250 middle-aged and older adults tested three times in six years (the initial sample at time 1 comprised 487 adults ages 55-86) (Hultsch et al., 1999). The investigators administered a battery of tests that measured nine hypothesized latent variables, three of which involved crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, story recall, reading comprehension) with the rest emphasizing memory or...

Implications for GA Performance

What is maximizing on-line performance good for Holland's view is clear the rough maximization of on-line performance is what goes on in adaptive systems of all kinds, and in some sense this is how adaptation is defined. In the realm of technology, on-line performance is important in control problems (e.g., automatically controlling machinery) and in learning problems (e.g., learning to navigate in an environment) in which each system action can lead to a gain or loss. It is also important in prediction tasks (e.g., predicting financial markets) in which gains or losses are had with each prediction. Most of the GA applications I discussed in chapter 2 had a slightly different performance criterion to find a reasonably good (if not perfect) solution in a reasonable amount of time. In other words, the goal is to satisfice (find a solution that is good enough for one's purposes) rather than to optimize (find the best possible solution). This goal is related to maximizing on-line...

Efficacy Of Rehabilitation

The impact of rehabilitation on direct impairments stemming from PD appears minimal. The metaanalysis by deGoede and colleagues and the RCT by Ellis and coauthors revealed no significant changes in neurological signs (2,6). However, in a randomized crossover study, Comella et al. found significant improvements in the UPDRS motor scores following participation in a rehabilitation program, suggesting a potential impact on neurological signs (13). The impact of rehabilitation on indirect impairments appears stronger. In an RCT, Schenkman and colleagues demonstrated improved axial mobility and flexibility in individuals with PD who participated in a 10-wk exercise program (14). Scandalis and coauthors reported strength gains after participation in a resisted strengthening program in individuals with PD (10). Bridgewater and coauthors reported gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and habitual activity levels following participation in a 12-wk aerobic-exercise program (15).

Steepestascent hill climbing SAHC

Going from left to right, systematically flip each bit in the string, one at a time, recording the fitnesses of the resulting one-bit mutants. If any of the resulting one-bit mutants give a fitness increase, then set current-hilltop to the one-bit mutant giving the highest fitness increase. (Ties are decided at random.) If there is no fitness increase, then save current-hilltop and go to step 1. Otherwise, go to step 2 with the new current-hilltop.

Analysis of Random Mutation Hill Climbing

To begin to answer this question, we analyzed the RMHC algorithm with respect to R1. (Our analysis is similar to that given for a similar problem on page 210 of Feller 1968.) Suppose the fitness function consists of N adjacent blocks of K ones each (in R1, N 8 and K 8). What is the expected time (number of function evaluations), I(K, N), for RMHC to find the optimum string of all ones Let I(K, 1) be the expected time to find a single block of K ones. Once it has been found, the time to discover a second block is longer, since some fraction of the function evaluations will be wasted on testing mutations inside the first block. These mutations will never lead to a higher or equal fitness, since once a first block is already set to all ones, any mutation to those bits will decrease the fitness. The proportion of nonwasted mutations is (KN K) KN this is the proportion of mutations that occur in the KN K positions outside the first block. The expected time I(K, 2) to find a second block is

Interpretation of the Solution

However, the correct interpretation of the Two-Armed Bandit analogy for schemas is not quite so simple. Grefenstette and Baker (1989) illustrate this with the following fitness function (Recall that x I H denotes x is an instance of schema H. ) Let u(H) be the static average fitness of a schema H(the average over all instances of the schema in the search space), and let U(H, t) be the observed average fitness of Hat time t (the average fitness of instances of H in the population at time t). It is easy to show that u(1 * * V and u(0 * *) 1. But under a GA, via selection, 1 * * will dominate the population very quickly in the form of instances of 111 * * since instances of the latter will be strongly selected in the population. This means that, under a GA, U(1 * *, t) H 2 after a small number of time steps, and 1 * *will receive many more samples than 0 * * even though its static average fitness is lower. Grefenstette and Baker's example shows that the GA does not play a 3L-armed bandit...

Multiobjective Library Design

Most approaches to multiobjective library design combine the different properties via a weighted-sum fitness function. For example, in the SELECT program different objectives can be specified by the user who also assigns their relative weights. To optimise the diversity whilst achieving a particular molecular weight profile one may use a fitness function of the following form

Multiobjective Library Design Using a MOGA

Despite the obvious benefits of optimising libraries over several properties simultaneously, in practice it can be difficult to find an appropriate compromise via a weighted-sum fitness function. Often, several trial-and-error runs are required. A further disadvantage is that each run results in a single solution, when in fact an entire family of solutions exists. each objective is handled independently without the need for summation and the use of relative weights. A MOGA attempts to identify a Pareto-optimal set of solutions where a Pareto-optimal solution, also called a non-dominated solution, is one for which no other solution exists in the population that is better in all objectives. The weighted-sum fitness function used in a traditional GA is replaced by fitness based on dominance an individual is given a rank according to the number of individuals in the population by which it is dominated as shown in Figure 9-8. The fitness of an individual is then calculated such that all...

Computer Exercises

Run a GA on the fitness function defined by equation 4.5, with l 100. Track the frequency of schemas 1* * * * *, 0* * * * *, and 111* * ** in the population at each generation. How well do the frequencies match those expected under the Schema Theorem In your run of the GA on Rj measure and plot on-line and off-line performance versus time (number of fitness-function evaluations so far). Do the same for SAHC and RMHC. Design a fitness function (in terms of schemas, as in Rj) on which you believe the GA should outperform RMHC. Test your hypothesis.

Other Operators and Mating Strategies

Though most GA applications use only crossover and mutation, many other operators and strategies for applying them have been explored in the GA literature. These include inversion and gene doubling (discussed above) and several operators for preserving diversity in the population. For example, De Jong (1975) experimented with a crowding operator in which a newly formed offspring replaced the existing individual most similar to itself. This prevented too many similar individuals ( crowds ) from being in the population at the same time. Goldberg and Richardson (1987) accomplished a similar result using an explicit fitness sharing function each individual's fitness was decreased by the presence of other population members, where the amount of decrease due to each other population member was an explicit increasing function of the similarity between the two individuals. Thus, individuals that were similar to many other individuals were punished, and individuals that were different were...

Do Ecological Principles Encompass Other Proposed Ecological Theories Optimal Foraging Theory

Researchers have long pursued theories to explain species' diversity. These theories have focused on quantifying adaptation, fitness, and natural selection through observing an animal's feeding behaviors. The assumption is that feeding behaviors are reflections of these internal processes. Using behavior as a mechanism of adaptation in a feedback loop creates an interactive system between an animal's phenotype and its environment.

When Should A Genetic Algorithm Be Used

The GA literature describes a large number of successful applications, but there are also many cases in which GAs perform poorly. Given a particular potential application, how do we know if a GA is good method to use There is no rigorous answer, though many researchers share the intuitions that if the space to be searched is large, is known not to be perfectly smooth and unimodal (i.e., consists of a single smooth hill ), or is not well understood, or if the fitness function is noisy, and if the task does not require a global optimum to be found i.e., if quickly finding a sufficiently good solution is enough a GA will have a good chance of being competitive with or surpassing other weak methods (methods that do not use domain-specific knowledge in their search procedure). If a space is not large, then it can be searched exhaustively, and one can be sure that the best possible solution has been found, whereas a GA might converge on a local optimum rather than on the globally best...

Understanding the Role of Crossover

Crossover is the primary operator distinguishing GAs from other stochastic search methods, but its role in GAs needs to be better understood. Under what conditions does it indeed recombine building blocks to form high-fitness solutions, and under what conditions is it instead serving only as a macro-mutation operator, simply making larger jumps in the search space than a simple mutation operator can make What is its role during various stages of the search How can we quantify its ability to construct good solutions Much theoretical work on GAs is aimed at answering these questions (e.g., the experiments on Royal Road functions described in chapter 4), but precise answers are still lacking.

Approaches To Productbased Library Design

The final, monomer selection stage is typically implemented using optimisation techniques such as GAs or simulated annealing Agrafiotis 1997 Brown et al. 2000 Zheng et al. 1998, 2000 . By way of example, the SELECT program Gillet et al. 1999 is based on a GA in which each chromosome encodes one possible combinatorial subset. Assume a two component combinatorial synthesis in which nA of a possible NA first monomers are to be reacted with nB of a possible NB second monomers. The chromosome of the GA thus contains nA + nB elements, each position specifying one possible monomer. The fitness function quantifies the goodness of the combinatorial subset encoded in the chromosome and the GA evolves new potential subsets in an attempt to maximise this quantity. Alternative approaches to product-based library design have been developed that do not require enumeration of the entire virtual library. These methods have been termed molecule-based methods to distinguish them from library-based...

Statisticalmechanics Approaches

I believe that a more useful approach to understanding and predicting GA behavior will be analogous to that of statistical mechanics in physics rather than keep track of the huge number of individual components in the system (e.g., the exact genetic composition of each population), such approaches will aim at laws of GA behavior described by more macroscopic statistics, such as mean fitness in the population or mean degree of symmetry in the chromosomes. This is in analogy with statistical mechanics' traditional goal of describing the laws of physical systems in terms of macroscopic quantities such as pressure and temperature rather than in terms of the microscopic particles (e.g., molecules) making up the system. The GA is set with the problem of finding an ( that minimizes the energy of a one-dimensional spin glass with given Ji's (the Jj values were selected ahead of time at random in ', +1 ). A chromosome is simply a string of N+1 spins (' or +1). The fitness of a chromosome is...

Reasons for the Absence of Harmful Effects due to Parasites

Thomas et al. (2000) have recently stressed the role of the environment in determining the outcome of host-parasite interactions. They cite some cases where the parasites can be detrimental to host fitness in one environment but beneficial in another and also review other cases where parasitised individuals enjoy a selective advantage over unparasitised conspecifics.

Acggn Nn N Nccgt Toccnnnnngqca

It is therefore likely that many of the redundancies reported so far reflect the effects of very specific genetic backgrounds and environments, whereas natural selection works in an uncontrolled system where subtle differences in fitness could be exploited.

Evidence of Interspecies Competition

In order to evaluate this evidence it is necessary to consider the concept of the niche. The term niche is best considered as a multidimensional space, determined by a large number of physical and biotic variables, within which species exist (Hutchinson, 1957). Each dimension represents a factor that influences the biological fitness of the species. In this context it is best not to make a distinction between parameters which benefit the organism directly, such as food resources, and those which may harm it such as allelopathic compounds or predators. However, the parameters that are given most attention in parasite ecology are the species, age and sex of the host, microhabitats, time and nutrient requirements. Microhabitat selection may be based on long-term, genetically fixed behavioural patterns (habitat segregation) or on short-term, interactive site selection induced by the presence of a potential competitor. The circumstantial evidence indicating that interspecies competition...

Library Design in Lead Optimisation

The desire was to construct a 20 x 20 combinatorial array. However, no such subset existed within the 770 compounds such that all 400 compounds would pass the filters. Due to the particular solid-phase synthetic route chosen, it was considered important to select as close to 20 R1R2NH as possible and that the number of R3R4NH should be equal to or greater than 20. The final library would therefore contain at least 400 compounds for each of the two isomers and be as close as possible to a combinatorial solution. It was also desired to include some of the known active monomers. These requirements were combined with appropriate weighting factors into a fitness function used by the library design algorithm which suggested 21 R1R2NH and 24 R3R4NH. Of the 504 possible compounds 449 (i.e. 89 ) satisfied the two bioavailability filters. A particular aspect of the design algorithm was its ability to suggest near-combinatorial solutions such that not every combination of R1R2NH and R3R4NH was...

Classical mutagenesis

Classical mutagenesis techniques are not unlike the process of evolution. Both require mutations in the DNA of an organism to bring about changes in genetic traits. While evolution selects for traits that confer greater reproductive fitness upon an organism, classical mutagenesis can select for traits chosen by the experimenter. Cells or spores are treated with mutagens to increase the frequency of mutation above the natural rate. The mutagens can include ultraviolet light, gamma ray irradiation or chemicals reactive with DNA. After treatment with mutagens, a diverse population of cells is obtained. A screening process is used to identify cells having mutations conferring desirable traits. The enzyme productivity ofa microorganism is a trait that can be altered through mutagenesis. While many mutations are detrimental or lethal to an organism, a few can lead to increased enzyme productivity.

Preoperative Evaluation And Preparation

Coronary Vein Pancreas

The etiology of the portal hypertension should be determined because this has a direct impact on outcome. Patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis (e.g., postnecrotic cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis) and those with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis or primary hepatic fibrosis do better, and have an improved survival after the DSRS than alcoholic cirrhotics (17,18). Because prognosis is directly related to liver functional reserve, the Child-Pugh class status should be assessed. Ideally, the nutritional status should be good, there should be no encephalopathy, the serum total bilirubin should be less than 2 mg dL, the serum albumin greater than 3 g dL, there should be no ascites and the prothrombin time should be no longer than 2 sec from the control. Ultrasound assessment of liver volume (between 1000 and 2500 mL) and a functional measurement of the liver reserve by means of the galactose elimination capacity (greater than 250 mg min) will further aid the selection of good-risk...

Fungal Contamination As A Major Contributor Table Iv

Metabolites are mainly to enhance the fitness of the fungi in nature. However, when some of these chemical compounds cause detrimental or toxic response in higher vertebrates at low concentrations, they are referred to as mycotoxins (Nielsen, 2002). Mycotoxicosis is defined as the disease resulting from exposure to a mycotoxin (CAST, 2003). Mycotoxicosis may be acute or chronic. More occult disease may occur when the mycotoxin interferes with the immune system and leads to a compromised immune system so as to make patients more susceptible to infectious diseases. Major mycotoxicoses include afla-toxicosis, ochratoxicosis, trichothecene toxicoses, citreviridin toxicosis, zearalenone toxicosis, fumonisin toxicosis, gliotoxin toxicosis, and immunomodulation.

Nextascent hill climbing NAHC

For ifrom 1 to l (where lis the length of the string), flip bit i if this results in a fitness increase, keep the new string, otherwise flip bit i back. As soon as a fitness increase is found, set current-hilltop to that increased-fitness string without evaluating any more bit flips of the original string. Go to step 2 with the new current-hilltop, but continue mutating the new string starting immediately after the bit position at which the previous fitness increase was found. If no increases in fitness were found, save current-hilltop and go to step 1.

Limitations of Static Schema Analysis

The following qualitative formulation of the Schema Theorem and the Building Block Hypothesis should now be familiar to the reader The simple GA increases the number of instances of low-order, short-defininglength, high-observed-fitness schemas via the multi-armed-bandit strategy, and these schemas serve as building blocks that are combined, via crossover, into candidate solutions with increasingly higher order and higher observed fitness. The rationale for this strategy is based on the assumption that the observed and static fitnesses of schemas are correlated some potential problems with this assumption have been pointed out in the previous sections. Grefenstette (1993, p. 78) claims that much work on GA theory has assumed a stronger version that he calls the Static Building Block Hypothesis (SBBH) Given any low-order, short-defining-length hyperplane i.e., schema partition, a GA is expected to converge to the hyperplane in that partition with the best static average fitness (the...

The Two Armed Bandit Problem

Has no a priori information on which arm is likely to be better. Her goal is, of course, to maximize her total payoff during the N trials. What should her strategy be for allocating trials to each arm, given her current estimates (from payoffs received so far) of the As and the As Note that the goal is not merely to guess which arm has a higher payoff rate, but to maximize payoff in the course of gaining information through allocating samples to the two arms. Such a performance criterion is called on-line, since the payoff at every trial counts in the final evaluation of performance. This is to be contrasted with the common off-line performance criteria in function optimization, where the performance evaluation of an optimization method might depend only on whether or not the global optimum was discovered, or possibly on the best fitness level achieved after a given number of trials, irrespective of the fitness (payoff) of the intermediate samples. Holland's analytic solution to the...

Nonoperative Management Protocol

To improve the cardiovascular fitness with steppers and bikes. Functional brace to stabilize the knee in pivotal motions. Note that Martinek has shown that knee bracing is not required after ACL reconstruction. Counseling concerning knee friendly sports and activities. Gradual return to sports as the range of motion and strength improves. Follow-up evaluation to assess the success of the conservative program.

Natural Causes of Dismemberment

Despite current preventive measures and sophisticated medical care, natural causes of limb failure remain prevalent and often precipitate gangrene, terminating in operative amputation, a combination of events more evident in elderly populations. It is postulated, firstly, that most natural causes have a prehistoric origin and exerted similar pathological effects then as now, and secondly, long before modern elective surgery, spontaneous natural amputations with survival yielded otherwise healthy amputees whose future, as disabled tribal members, hinged on the attitude of their active companions. In a harshly competitive environment where survival depended on avoiding wild beasts, on strenuous days hunting for food and on resisting enemy incursions, complete physical fitness was vital and an amputee must have been viewed as a weak link in a community's survival chain. Eventually,when not despatched or abandoned, as was probable in the case of leg amputees who were members of a nomadic...

Myths of Life Extension

From a scientific point of view it is a worthwhile excercise to consider what would be necessary to produce a complex organism that was potentially immortal. First, the animal would have to be in a steady state, that is, the adult would not be young or old, but remain anatomically and physiologically unchanged indefinitely, in the absence of some lethal accident. Second, it would have the ability to regenerate all components of the body that began to show any signs of ageing or decay. Third, to do this it would have to invest a large proportion of its resources in maintenance, regeneration and renewal. Figure 7 illustrates the principle it assumes that normal functions are constant, but the remaining resources are divided between reproductive functions and maintenance functions. The immortal animal would have fewer resources for reproduction, fewer offspring, and much reduced Darwinian fitness.

The Ecology And Evolution Of Transovarially Transmitted Microsporidia


Horizontally transmitted microsporidia, such as Nosema apis, typically cause massive infections in the host, are pathogenic and may lead to host mortality (Canning, 1993). Horizontal transmission is strongly dependent on parasite burden as spores are released into the environment where they are ingested by the next host. The more spores produced, the greater the chance of infecting a new host. Associated with massive spore production is a high metabolic cost and tissue damage in the host leading to a reduction in host fitness and survival (Table 2). In contrast, transovarially transmitted microsporidia are frequently present in low burden and cause little pathogenicity (Table 2, Dunn et al., 1993 Terry et al, 1997 Koella and Agnew, 1997 Ni et al., 1997). Vertically transmitted parasites rely on successful host reproduction for their transmission to the next host generation. Any negative effects on host fitness (and hence reduction in reproductive success) will result in a reduction of...

Thought Exercises

For the fitness function defined by Equation 4.5, what are the average fitnesses of the schemas (a) 1 ** *, (b) 11 * *, and (c) 1 * 1 * * Consider the fitness function f(x number of ones in x, where x is a chromosome of length 4. Suppose the GA has run for three generations, with the following populations Define on-line performance at function evaluation step t as the average fitness of all the individuals that have been evaluated over t evaluation steps, and off-line performance at time t as the average value, over t evaluation steps, of the best fitness that has been seen up to each evaluation step. Give the on-line and off-line performance after the last evaluation step in each generation. Design a three-bit fully deceptive fitness function. Fully deceptive means that the average fitness of every schema indicates that the complement of the global optimum is actually the global optimum. For example, if 111 is the global optimum, any schema containing 000 should have the highest...

Mice and

Fibroblast Cells From Mammal

In fact, it has been established experimentally that when calorie-deprived animals are subsequently allowed to have a full diet they can breed at very significantly greater ages than animals which are continuously fed ad libitum. It also makes biological sense that the semi-starved animals invest what resources they have (namely, about 60 of the normal calorie intake) in maintaining their bodies, until such time as more food becomes available and breeding can begin again. The diversion of resources from breeding to maintenance, has the effect stretching out survival, that is, increasing the lifespan. Seen in this light, the extension of lifespan is an evolutionary adaptation, which maximises the fitness of the animal (i.e. the total number of offspring produced) in environments with fluctuating food supplies. One can look at the situation in another way. One might guess that a rat or mouse given 60 of a normal diet, would simply keep breeding but produce fewer offspring....

Thistleinsect interactions in prairies of the upper Great Plains

In the prairie, insect herbivory on native thistles has been quantified for 25 years (Lamp and McCarty, 1979, 1981, 1982c Louda and McEachern, 1995 Stanforth et al, 1997 Jackson, 1998 Bevill et al, 1999 Louda, 2000a Louda and Arnett, 2000). These data show that feeding by native insects significantly reduces both flowerhead survival and subsequent seed reproduction by Platte, Pitcher's, tall and wavyleaf thistles. These studies have also been supplemented by experimental evaluation of the role of seed in the population dynamics of platte thistle (Louda et al., 1990, 1992 Louda and Potvin, 1995), wavyleaf thistle in Nebraska sand prairie (Louda, 2000a S.M. Louda, T. Tesar Huettner and J. Burger, unpublished results) and Pitcher's thistle in dune grasslands around Lake Michigan (Louda and McEachern, 1995 Bevill, 1998 Bevill et al., 1999 and unpublished results). For Platte thistle, insect herbivores were crucial in limiting seed production, seedling establishment, local population...

Pharmacophore Mapping Using a Genetic Algorithm

Genetic and evolutionary algorithms involve the creation of a population of potential solutions that gradually evolves towards better solutions. This evolution is dependent upon, and assessed using, a fitness function which provides a mechanism to score and therefore rank different members of the population. Another common feature is the use of a chromosome to encode each member of the population. The chromosome may be stored in a variety of ways, most commonly as a linear bitstring (i.e. a sequence of 0 s and 1 s). However it is also possible to store the chromosome as a sequence of integers or real numbers. The chromosomes form the basis for the generation of new potential members of the population. In GASP the chromosome consists of 2N-1 strings, where N is the number of molecules. N binary strings are used to represent the torsion angle values in the molecules (and so each specifies one molecule's conformation, as illustrated in Figure 2-13). Each angle is represented by eight...

Structure Prediction And Molecular Docking 1521 Ab initio Prediction of Protein Structure

The genetic algorithm (Dandekar and Argos, 1994 Koza, 1993) is applied to the problem of protein structure prediction with a simple force field as the fitness function to generate a set of suboptimal native-like conformations. Because the number of probable conformations is so large (for the main chain conformations with 2 torsion angles per residue and assuming 5 likely values per torsion angle, a protein of medium size with 100 residues will have (2 x 5)100 10100 conformations even if we further assume optimal (constant) bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles for the side chains), it is computationally impossible to evaluate all the conformations to find the global optimum. Various constraints and approximations have to be introduced. For example, an assumption of constant bond lengths and bond angles by carrying out folding simulation in vacuum simplifies the total energy expression to where Etor, EvdW, Eelec, and Epe are torsion angle potential, van der Waals interaction,...

Simple Genetic Algorithm

Calculate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population. Select a pair of parent chromosomes from the current population, the probability of selection being an increasing function of fitness. Selection is done with replacement, meaning that the same chromosome can be selected more than once to become a parent. Each iteration of this process is called a generation. A GA is typically iterated for anywhere from 50 to 500 or more generations. The entire set of generations is called a run. At the end of a run there are often one or more highly fit chromosomes in the population. Since randomness plays a large role in each run, two runs with different random-number seeds will generally produce different detailed behaviors. GA researchers often report statistics (such as the best fitness found in a run and the generation at which the individual with that best fitness was discovered) averaged over many different runs of the GA on the same problem. As a more detailed example of a...

Alternative Complementary And Integrative Medicine

Popular demand for choices in approaches to wellness, healing, and medical care, transformed the relationship between orthodox medicine and forms of healing once denounced as sectarianism, superstition, and quackery. As physicians attempted to incorporate rather than eradicate competing healing approaches, unorthodox medicine was subsumed into complementary, alternative, or integrative medicine. From the perspective of mainstream medicine, alternative medicine included osteopaths and chiropractors, as well as folk and religious healers, natu-ropaths, homeopaths, acupuncturists, diet and fitness programs, reflex-ology, therapeutic massage, magnetic devices, self-help systems promising natural healing, and herbalism.

Simple Model of the Baldwin Effect

Genetic assimilation is well known in the evolutionary biology community. Its predecessor, the Baldwin effect, is less well known, though it has recently been picked up by evolutionary computationalists because of an interesting experiment performed by Geoffrey Hinton and Steven Nowlan (1987). Hinton and Nowlan employed a GA in a computer model of the Baldwin effect. Their goal was to demonstrate this effect empirically and to measure its magnitude, using a simplified model. An extremely simple neural-network learning algorithm modeled learning, and the GA played the role of evolution, evolving a population of neural networks with varying learning capabilities. In the model, each individual is a neural network with 20 potential connections. A connection can have one of three values present, absent, and learnable. These are specified by 1, 0, and , respectively, where each connection can be set during learning to either 1 or 0. There is only one correct setting for the connections...

The Ancient Origins of Ageing

Selection will act to select the fittest variants. Fitness is a measure of the ability to survive and reproduce. All individuals are subjected to environmental hazards, and obviously there is a strong element of chance in survival. Nevertheless, the genes also influence the animal's chance of survival, and therefore there will be natural selection of genes. All this has been outlined in recent years with considerable persuasion and clarity by Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene, and also by many other authors.

Climbing And Other Locomotor Behavior

Measure of this activity was a measure of the fitness of the flies. These observations on the relationship between age and locomotion have been confirmed. LeBourg (1983) reported that young flies show patterns of movement that result in dispersion while old flies tend to move in close relation to their release point. LeBourg and Lints (1984) investigated the sex of flies in relation to age and activity. They reported that females were more active than males at all ages and confirmed the observations that activity in both sexes decreased in older flies.

Hitchhiking in the Genetic Algorithm

What caused our GA to perform so badly on R relative to RMHC One reason was hitchhiking once an instance of a higher-order schema is discovered, its high fitness allows the schema to spread quickly in the population, with zeros in other positions in the string hitchhiking along with the ones in the schema's defined positions. This slows the discovery of schemas in the other positions, especially those that are close to the highly fit schema's defined positions. In short, hitchhiking seriously limits the implicit parallelism of the GA by restricting the schemas sampled at certain loci. The effects of hitchhiking are strikingly illustrated in figure 4.2. The percentage of the population that is an instance of si is plotted versus generation for s s 8 for a typical run of the GA on R . On this run the schemas s2,s4, and s8 each had two instances in the initial population none of the other five schemas was present initially. These schemas confer high fitness on their instances, and, as...

Ziv E And Shafrir E Nutritionally Thrifty Gene Background

10 Ferreira I, Henry RM, Twisk JW, van Mechelen W, Kemper HC, Stehouwer CD The metabolic syndrome, cardiopulmonary fitness, and subcutaneous trunk fat as independent determinants of arterial stiffness the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Arch Intern Med 2005 165 875-882.

Thomas D Koepsell

In 1986, a community cardiovascular disease prevention program called Heart to Heart was mounted in the town of Florence, South Carolina (Goodman et al. 1995). The multicomponent intervention included media campaigns about smoking, physical fitness, and diet public nutrition classes information in supermarkets about food labeling distribution of self-help resources for smoking cessation and weight control a restaurant menu-labeling program cholesterol and blood pressure screening at health fairs and other activities. The town of Anderson, South Carolina, 200 miles away, served as a control community in which no special intervention activities were

Exercise Assessment

Exercise alone is, unfortunately, not a terribly effective method for losing weight. It is difficult for the untrained person to do enough of it, and most if not all of the expended energy is compensated by increased caloric intake. Exercise is, however, a superb way to maintain a lower weight after weight loss, enabling a person to eat somewhat more than a nonexerciser and maintain the same given weight. Regular aerobic exercise and strength training will also improve cardiovascular fitness, trim inches, and promote growth of metabolically more active muscle tissue. An exercise assessment should include a record of the usual degree of physical activity, any limiting factors such as joint disease or previous injuries, types of activity the patient finds enjoyable, and a measurement by an exercise physiologist of the current fitness level. A formal stress test is not required unless cardiovascular disease is suspected.

Tournament Selection

The fitness-proportionate methods described above require two passes through the population at each generation one pass to compute the mean fitness (and, for sigma scaling, the standard deviation) and one pass to compute the expected value of each individual. Rank scaling requires sorting the entire population by rank a potentially time-consuming procedure. Tournament selection is similar to rank selection in terms of selection pressure, but it is computationally more efficient and more amenable to parallel implementation.

Experimental Results

Where Fj is is fitness, is the mean fitness of the population, and A is the standard deviation of the fitnesses in the population. The number of expected offspring of any string was cut off at 1.5 if the above formula gave a higher value, the value was reset to 1.5. This is a strict cutoff, since it implies that most individuals will reproduce only 0, 1, or 2 times. The effect of this selection scheme is to slow down convergence by restricting the effect that a single individual can have on the population, regardless of how much fitter it is than the rest of the population. The single-point crossover rate was 0.7 per pair of parents and the bitwise mutation rate was 0.005.

Staged Surgery

Excision of the pouch with an end colostomy is the procedure of choice. Window colostomy is simple surgery, can be performed with minimum anesthesia time in a sick neonate, and provides adequate decompression and a time period to allow for weight gain and fitness for the second stage. However, it has certain disadvantages, as will be described later. The mortality following window colostomy is reported to be in the range of 15-20 21 . However, the mortality following coloplasty with end colostomy in the newborn period is higher, hence this is better done at a later date.


To use inversion in GAs, we have to find some way for the functional interpretation of an allele to be the same no matter where it appears in the string. For example, in the chromosome encoding a cellular automaton (see section 2.1), the leftmost bit under lexicographic ordering is the output bit for the neighborhood of all zeros. We would want that bit to represent that same neighborhood even if its position were changed in the string under an inversion. Holland proposed that each allele be given an index indicating its real position, to be used when evaluating a chromosome's fitness. For example, the string 00010101 would be encoded as Inversion works by choosing two points in the string and reversing the order of the bits between them in the example just given, bits 3-6 were reversed. This does not change the fitness of the chromosome, since to calculate the fitness the string is ordered by the indices. However, it does change the linkages the idea behind inversion is to produce...


Despite the fact that some of the helminth parasites encountered damaged the tissues of their salmonid hosts there was no evidence that they caused mortality or that they had a detrimental effect on the growth of their hosts. To the contrary it was found that parasite abundance was significantly correlated with the condition factor and adipose index in some cases. Further research is needed to test the following hypotheses to ascertain the possible mechanisms that might explain these positive relationships. Firstly, they may be due to the hierarchical behavioural patterns of salmonid fish. As a result the larger, dominant fish tend to ingest more infected intermediate hosts because they spend more time in the transmission sites which are the sediment-depositing microhabitats favoured by the intermediate hosts. Secondly, it is postulated that the positive relationships may be due to the parasites manipulating the immune and neuroendocrine system of the hosts to stimulate their somatic...

Organism Indicators

Given the diversity of processes that are sensitive to the impact of environmental chemicals, it should come as no surprise that there is no simple prescription for evaluating reproductive and developmental fitness in fish. A series of standardized whole animal tests have been developed for examining chemical effects on toxicity and reproductive processes in fish (e.g. OECD, 1993 Benson et al., 1997). Many of the endpoints used in these studies overlap with those used in studies with feral fish. The laboratory tests fall into three broad categories (i) short-term acute tests, (ii) sub-chronic tests and (iii) chronic and multigenerational tests. Most reproductive testing has occurred in the latter two categories. In sub-chronic tests using sexually mature fish, production of gametes is used as a measure of reproductive capacity and, when required, fertilization success is also monitored. This is typically done using warm water species such as medaka (Oryzias latipes), zebrafish...


Adaptive value the property of a given genotype when compared with other genotypes that confers fitness (q.v.) to an organism in a given environment. age-dependent selection selection in which the values for relative fitness of different genotypes vary with the age of the individual.

Rank Selection

Rank selection is an alternative method whose purpose is also to prevent too-quick convergence. In the version proposed by Baker (1985), the individuals in the population are ranked according to fitness, and the expected value of each individual depends on its rank rather than on its absolute fitness. There is no need to scale fitnesses in this case, since absolute differences in fitness are obscured. This discarding of absolute fitness information can have advantages (using absolute fitness can lead to convergence problems) and disadvantages (in some cases it might be important to know that one individual is far fitter than its nearest competitor). Ranking avoids giving the far largest share of offspring to a small group of highly fit individuals, and thus reduces the selection pressure when the fitness variance is high. It also keeps up selection pressure when the fitness variance is low the ratio of expected values of individuals ranked i and i+1 will be the same whether their...

Grammatical Encoding

Gramatical Encoding

The method of grammatical encoding can be illustrated by the work of Hiroaki Kitano (1990), who points out that direct-encoding approachs become increasingly difficult to use as the size of the desired network increases. As the network's size grows, the size of the required chromosome increases quickly, which leads to problems both in performance (how high a fitness can be obtained) and in efficiency (how long it takes to obtain high fitness). In addition, since direct-encoding methods explicitly represent each connection in the network, repeated or nested structures cannot be represented efficiently, even though these are common for some problems. The solution pursued by Kitano and others is to encode networks as grammars the GA evolves the grammars, but the fitness is tested only after a development step in which a network develops from the grammar. That is, the genotype is a grammar, and the phenotype is a network derived from that grammar. The fitness of a grammar was calculated...

Formalization of GAs

Calculate the fitness f(x) of each string x in the population. Choose (with replacement) two parents from the current population with probability proportional to each string's relative fitness in the population. If the fitness is equal to the number of ones in the string, The vector exactly specifies the composition of the population at generation t, and reflects the selection probabilities under the fitness function. These are connected via fitness let F be a two-dimensional matrix such that Fjj 0 for i jand Firi f(i). That is, every entry of Fis 0 except the diagonal entries ((i,i)), which give the fitness of the corresponding string i. Under proportional selection, Vose and Liepins included crossover and mutation in the model by defining G as the composition of the fitness matrix Fand a recombination operator M. that mimics the effects of crossover and mutation. (Vose and Liepins use the term recombination to encompass both the crossover and mutation step. I will adopt this usage...

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