Problemsspecial considerations

The main risk of ectopic pregnancy is sudden severe haemorrhage, which may be intra-abdominal and thus concealed until rapid decompensation and collapse occur. A common theme in deaths associated with ectopic pregnancy is the failure to consider the diagnosis before collapse. Ectopic pregnancy may present with non-specific abdominal signs including diarrhoea or constipation, thus mimicking other intra-abdominal conditions (e.g. appendicitis), although with serial measurement of plasma human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG; doubles every 2-3 days in normal pregnancy) and use of pelvic ultrasonography this should be unusual. The potential severity of the condition is not always appreciated by other hospital staff, the patient herself or her relatives. Ectopics outside the Fallopian tubes are more likely to be associated with massive haemorrhage, with abdominal pregnancies the most hazardous, especially when the placenta is removed.

Most ectopic pregnancies present early in pregnancy and thus many of the physiological changes of pregnancy are absent or mild - the patient may even be unaware that she is pregnant. However, even at this early stage there may be features of the physiological changes of pregnancy.

The implications for the current and future pregnancies pose a great psychological stress on the patient and her partner. There may be a previous history of ectopic pregnancy since its occurrence is itself a risk factor for subsequent ectopics.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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