Cardiofacial syndrome Congenital dysfunction Hemifacial microsomia Mobius syndrome
Prenatally: face compression aginst mother's sacrum, abnormal posture. Iatrogenic:
Oxygen mask used in anesthesia (mandibular branch) Trauma:
Extracranial: parotid surgery, gunshot, knife wound, carotid endartectomy Intratemporal: motor vehicle accidents - 70-80% from longitudinal fractures. Intracranial: surgery.
Temporal bone fractures: In about 50% of cases of transverse temporal bone fractures, the facial nerve within the internal auditory canal is damaged. Facial nerve injury occurs in about 50% of cases and the labyrinth is usually damaged by the fracture. 65% to 80% of fractures are neither longitudinal nor transverse, but rather oblique. Severe head injury can also avulse the nerve root from the brainstem.
Differential diagnosis for Bell's palsy
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