Face, scalp, conjunctiva, bulb of eye, mucous membranes of paranasal sinus, nasal and oral cavity, tongue, teeth, part of external aspect of tympanic membrane, meninges of anterior, and middle cranial fossa.
Anatomy The trigeminal nuclei consist of a motor nucleus, a large sensory nucleus, a mesencephalic nucleus, the pontine trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the spinal tract. The nerve emerges from the midlateral surface of the pons as a large sensory root and a smaller motor root. It ascends over the temporal bone to reach its sensory ganglion, the trigeminal or semilunar ganglion. The branchial motor branch lies beneath the ganglion and exits via the foramen rotun-dum. The sensory ganglion is located in the trigeminal (Meckle's) cave in the floor of the middle cranial fossa. The three major divisions of the trigeminal nerve, ophthalmic nerve (V1), maxillary nerve (V2), and mandibular nerve (V3), exit the skull through the superior orbital fissure, the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale, respectively. V1 (and in rare instances, V2) passes through the cavernous sinus (see Fig. 4 through Fig. 7).
Fig. 8. Some features of trigeminal neuropathy: A Motor lesion of the right trigeminal nerve. The jaw deviates to the ipsilater-al side upon opening the mouth. B Left ophthalmic zoster. C The patient suffers from trigeminal neuralgia. Shaving above the mouth induces attack. Note the unshav-ed patch, that corresponds to the area, where the attack is elicited
The extracranial pathway has three major divisions:
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