The Secret to Happiness
Generic instruments now exist that are aimed at evaluating a patient's level of productive assimilation into his or her environment. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) is designed to assess physical and mental happiness in eight domains of health (1) physical function (10 items) (2) physical role limitations (4 items) (3) bodily pain (2 items) (4) vitality (4 items) (5) general health perceptions (5 items) (6) emotional role limitations (3 items) (7) social function (2 items) and (8) mental health (5 items). The underlying assumption is that mental and physical functions are readily separable aspects of health, but of course, this is not really the case.52'53 Predictably, patients' responses on the SF-36 tend to be strongly influenced by the type of operation they had. For example, a patient who has undergone total hip arthroplasty will feel better immediately one who has undergone lung resection for cancer may not feel particularly well immediately afterward but, ideally, will be relieved of...
If you compare the bodily responses you experience in anger and fear and in happiness and sadness, they will probably seem different to you. This apparent difference in physiological reactions between the emotions led many researchers to consider that there might be specific bodily patterns of response associated with each emotion. Ever since William James's time (the 1880s), we have known that physiological arousal is a necessary part of emotion, so the search for specific bodily mechanisms involved in this process has been carried out for 120 years, but without much success. There appear to be some broad differences in heart rate between happiness, surprise and disgust, on the one hand, and anger, fear and sadness, on the other. But in general any differences between the emotions physiologically are swamped by individual differences in reactivity from one person to the next.
The presence of the cavernous body is lacking in nearly all textbooks of anatomy (Fig. 1.1) and is therefore unknown to most nasolacrimal surgeons as well as radiologists however, it is densely innervated 14 . Epiphora related to emotions such as sorrow or happiness occur not only by increased tear secretion from the lacrimal gland and accessory lacrimal glands, but also by closure of the lacrimal passage. This mechanism acts, for example, to provide protection against foreign bodies that have entered the conjunctival sac Not only is tear fluid production increased, but tear outflow is also interrupted by the swelling of the cavernous body to flush out the foreign body and protect the efferent tear ducts themselves 2, 14, 20 . Moreover, it can be assumed that the valves in the lacrimal
In pursuing happiness, avoiding the quick fix is very important. Quick fixes come in all shapes and sizes alcohol, drugs, chocolate, a new car, a better house, more clothes, blah, blah, blah. Such things are fine in moderation, of course, but they don't create lasting happiness.
Combined kidney and pancreas transplantation is undertaken at some major centres and aims to eliminate diabetes and with it the need for insulin injections. Patients who are liberated from decades of restrictions and self discipline imposed by diabetes experience a joy and happiness rarely witnessed in medical practice. This is the prime reason for offering combined transplantation. Other benefits derive from slowing the redevelopment of glomerulosclerosis in the transplanted kidney, and halting the progression of neuropathy. Retinopathy which by this stage has almost always been laser treated is unaffected. The future potential for islet cell transplantation is briefly described on page 22.
A powerful way of achieving happiness is through helping others. Being kind to others helps you in two ways First, you're likely to enjoy the feeling you get from giving service or kindness to others. Second, doing something nice for another person takes your mind off your own problems.
Methods used have varied from simple 'satisfaction scales,' e.g. visual analogue scale or verbal rating scale, to complex evaluations of different modalities that combine to produce a positive experience of childbirth such as fulfilment (e.g. happiness), lack of distress (e.g. pleasure) and physical wellbeing (e.g. lack of pain). The simpler systems will always be more attractive to busy clinicians such as anaesthetists than the more complex and time-consuming ones, even though simple questions such as 'Are you satisfied ' or 'Rate your satisfaction on a scale of 1-10' are next to useless as objective outcome measures.
Psychosocial Issues A variety of emotions surround genetic testing. Patients who test positive may experience fear, depression, anger, pessimism, or shock, and some feel guilt for potentially passing the mutation to offspring. Others express relief that the cause of their cancer was identified, or that cancer risk is better defined. Patients who test negative often experience relief and happiness. However, some feel guilty for hav
Although less frequently reported, a number of other neuropsychiatric symptoms need to be mentioned. Agitation, such as aggression, restlessness, and shouting, can usually be observed, and thus the identification of these symptoms is less problematic. However, key symptoms of agitation are often secondary to other psychiatric syndromes. For example, anxiety may lead to restlessness, shouting, or trailing carers, or aggression may be secondary to delusional beliefs. Disinhibition is characterized by inappropriate social and interpersonal interactions. Elation euphoria refers to an elevated mood with excessive happiness and overconfidence, and obsessional and compulsory symptoms, with recurrent thoughts, vocalizations, or rituals, may also occur in basal ganglia disorders.
This is a description of some of the behaviours of happy couples in successful long-term relationships. Turning the coin over, these ways of behaving in a relationship could be seen as prescriptions for happiness, actions to aim at if one wishes to develop a satisfactory and enduring relationship. Although they might come easily to some couples, for others they take work.
Such questions face those who study psychotherapy outcome. In trying to document the ''real world'' effects of therapeutic interventions, researchers may use instrumentation and assessment techniques that fail to capture the subtle nuances of human change. Yet, persons may report greater happiness, adjustment, or ability to proceed with life despite producing unremarkable profiles on standard instruments. How does the realist objectivist outcome researcher account for this phenomenon Constructivists would propose using idiographic and ipsative measures that are uniquely tailored to the work that is being undertaken in psychotherapy. Methods such as goal-attainment scaling, content analysis procedures, and repertory grids may both help trace the client's level of achieved change and permit the outcome researcher to compare the extent to which clients as a group received benefits.
The quality of my life greatly improved after I went to the university. In addition to being a good scientist, Professor Chagas had great diplomatic ability. His family is one of the most traditional and influential in the country and he was able to protect the Biophysics Institute without ever compromising with the military regime. There were several excellent research laboratories at the Biophysics Institute, and I was fortunate to work in Antonio Paes de Carvalho's unit. A well-known electro-physiologist, he not only gave me space in his laboratory, but also shared with me the small grant he had, and revised the manuscripts I wrote, and all of this without ever accepting my offer to include his name as coauthor on the papers I published. This was also the time when I met a beautiful and highly talented geologist. We fell in love, married, and had four children who to this day I proclaim to be my best contribution to biology. It was impossible to ignore the nightmare prevailing...
Don't get us wrong we want you to feel good most of the time. But as far as we know, the only humans who don't feel some anxiety or sadness are, well . . . dead. Besides, if you don't know sadness, it's difficult to know what happiness is. Without worry, you wouldn't appreciate calm. Accept a certain degree of difficult emotions as part of your life.
Are some emotions more important than others When we are in the all-encompassing throes of a particular emotion, it seems as significant at the time as any other. We might be as wracked with envy over a rival's promotion as we are consumed by anger over a social slight or trembling with anxiety at the thought of an impending speech. However, there is one sense in which some emotions do seem to be more important than others, in that they are more basic to survival. For example, fear is probably more linked to fundamental survival than is envy, or joy happiness is more important to survival than pride. The usual list of primary or basic emotions is fear anxiety, anger, sadness and happiness, with disgust sometimes added as a fifth. You have been meaning to do a large job in the garden for some weeks. You eventually get round to it and spend the entire day digging, weeding and clearing up. As twilight approaches, you finish the job and stretch your back, looking round at the cleared...
Although sport is about performance, it is obvious that what makes the performance is the emotional reactions to it on the part of both participants and observers. Almost any emotion can impede sporting performance. Go to play any sport while in the grip of some or other emotion (anxiety, anger, jealousy, guilt, even an overabundance of joy or elation) and your performance is likely to suffer. On the other hand, a moderate level of anxiety and perhaps a general background state of happiness are likely to enhance sporting performance.
According to Caraka, the attainment and maintenance of health and happiness was a necessary and noble pursuit. Diseases obstructed the attainment of humanity's highest goals, but Ayurveda, the most sacred of the sciences, benefited human beings in their present and future lives. The Caraka Samhita provides a guide to the three forms of medicine mantras and religious acts diet and drugs and psychic therapy, or subjection of the mind.
Emotion colours everything that we do. Emotion is always present in one form or another as a basic aid to our survival. It is our emotional reactions to the world that allow to us determine which parts of it are safe for us and which are dangerous, which will bring happiness and which will bring sadness or anger or depression. Emotion is both a very basic and primitive part of our existence and also a very sophisticated and important part of our survival. At the most fundamental level, emotion provides us with information about ourselves that is essential in our struggle to deal with daily life.
In this chapter, we go beyond depression and anxiety and reach for true happiness. Why Because science tell us that happiness doesn't just feel good happy people have better immune systems, live longer, have lower blood pressure, and have more empathy for others. Happy people are also more productive and make more money. That's a pretty good argument for finding happiness. If happiness is such a good thing, you may wonder what exactly makes people happy. Although happy people usually make a little more money, research shows that money alone doesn't lead to more happiness. Unless you're in extreme poverty and struggling to put food on the table, studies indicate that even winning a big lottery payout doesn't increase happiness for very long. And, surprisingly, power, youth, and good looks don't seem to contribute much at all to people's reported happiness. As psychologists, we see firsthand how often those with money, looks, and power suffer from depression and anxiety. Basically rich,...
One way people ruin their chances for happiness is by holding on to resentments, anger, and rage. When you've been wronged, it's natural to feel upset, and anger can be useful, at least for a while. Anger helps you defend yourself when attacked because it revs up your body to right a wrong. Forgiving isn't the same as saying that the wrong was okay. Forgiveness gives back the peace that you had before the event occurred. And letting go of your anger allows you to regain your previous happiness.
The main role of these long-term patent channels is to improve the quality of life for patients. Although some patients find CCC difficult, they report an increase in self-esteem, happiness, and social acceptance. Great support should be given to increase patient motivation, and patient groups should be organized to meet together at least once a year to prevent those patients who find the procedure lengthy and painful from abandoning their channels, despite the advantages 77,112-114 .