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Reiki Energy Healing Bracelet

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Reiki Energy Healing Bracelet Summary


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Pure Reiki Healing Mastery created by Owen Coleman is a comprehensive training program, which provides step-by-step guide on learning the art of Reiki, a traditional spiritual healing practice which help dealing with physical and emotional health, including various meditation and relaxation techniques. The first step in the program focuses on teaching you how to increase your connection with the universal life force energies. Next, the program focuses on how to use that energy to re-balance that force to enable healing within the body. Finally, the course teaches how to get results quickly and easily. This program can be easily done in groups or as an individual. You need not buy expensive items or drugs to get cured. The program is easy to understand and you do not require any additional help. More here...

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Healing and energy work

Reiki Reiki is a method of healing that was rediscovered in Japan in the 1800s. The energy is known as qi and can be channelled from its originating source by the reiki practitioner and passed on to a recipient Spiritual healing Spiritual healing, often referred to simply as healing, involves channeling of healing energies through the healer to the patient. It is a supportive approach, which may involve light touch or no touch at all, depending on the recipient's conditions and wishes The best available evidence suggests that reiki and spiritual healing may contribute to pain relief, promote relaxation, to improve sleep patterns, reduce tension, stress and anxiety, to provide emotional and or spiritual support, contribute to a sense of wellbeing, reduce side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and support the patient in the dying process

Sages Physicians Healers And Quacks

Diseases had already developed was as foolish as waiting until a war broke out to cast weapons. In theory, superior physicians guided the healthy patient inferior physicians treated the sick. While the scholar practiced preventive medicine and took no fee for his work, hordes of healers without scholarly pretensions surgeons, apothecaries, magicians, fortune-tellers, peddlers, and assorted quacks were eager to collect fees and quite willing to serve sick and stupid patients. The typical practitioner was accused of being more interested in fees and favors than theories and philosophy. Although the education and activities of physicians in the Imperial Service are hardly typical of the general practice of medicine in China, many interesting innovations are associated with the evolution of this institution. For example, the institutions of the Chou indicate that during the Chou Dynasty (ca. 1122-221 b.c.e.,) the government conducted yearly examinations of those who wished to practice...

Prophetic Medicine

Although the Prophet unquestionably recommended cupping and the use of honey in treating certain illnesses, his position on cauterization was ambiguous. On some occasions, Muhammad ordered the use of the cautery and even treated some of his wounded followers by cauterization, but after admitting that cauterization could restore health, he reportedly prohibited its use. To rationalize the use of the cautery, commentators argued that the prohibition was only intended to stop practitioners from boasting that the cautery was a totally effective measure. Healers were expected to confess that all remedies worked only by God's will. Muhammad forbade the use amulets that invoked supernatural agents, but he allowed the use to those whose contents were in keeping with the teachings of the Koran. Over the years, books of ''Prophetic medicine'' were compiled by theologians and religious leaders who hoped to counter the growing influence of Greek medicine. Nevertheless, Greek philosophy, science,...

Touch therapies

Reflexology has its roots in traditional Chinese medicine. Practitioners apply pressure to specific zones on the soles and tops of the feet to assess the disease state of the patient and also to improve health. Massaging the points is thought to unblock energy pathways and restore normal energy flow The evidence base for use of the touch therapies is growing. A wide range of uses includes helping to promote relaxation, alleviate anxiety, reduce depression, reduce pain, reduce nausea, alleviate symptoms such as breathlessness, alleviate side effects of chemotherapy, improve sleep pattern, reduce stress and tension, reduce psychological distress, provide emotional support, improve wellbeing and quality of life, encourage acceptance of altered body image

About the Editorin Chief

His books include two textbooks, Health Psychology and Personality three edited scholarly volumes and the authored comprehensive analysis titled The Self-Healing Personality. Dr. Friedman's research centers around the relations of mental and physical health, with a special focus on expressive style. He has taught undergraduates, graduate students, medical students, and postdocs.

Robert J HilsdenMD PhD Frcpc and Marja J VerhoefPhD

A holistic approach is characterized by an emphasis on diagnosing and treating illness through an understanding of the whole person (ie, body, mind, and spirit) and how the individual interacts with the world around them. Health and disease are often viewed as a balance between dynamic, opposing forces. Disease may be seen as the result of a blockage or disruption of vital energy or an imbalance between two opposing forces (eg, ying and yang). Treatments are directed at restoring a healthy balance and flow in these forces and stimulating the self-healing potential of the body. These philosophies often lead to highly individualized treatments.

Principle Of Endoluminal Stent Graft In Aortic Disease

Partial or complete rupture almost always occurs as a result of deceleration trauma (as in a car accident or a fall from a height). Emergent or preferably delayed (but timely) endovascular management by stabilization of the disrupted aorta with stent graft has proven beneficial, with amazing reconstruction of the thoracic aorta by virtue of the inner lining by the endoprothesis that can prevent enlargement, aneurysm formation, and eventual rupture but also allowed self-healing of the transsected aortic tissues.

Suggested Readings

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America Issues of Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Gender. Madison, WI University of Wisconsin Press. Brenneman, R. J. (1990). Deadly Blessings Faith Healing on Trial. Buffalo, NY Prometheus Books. Gevitz, N., ed. (1988). Other Healers. Unorthodox Medicine in America. Baltimore, MD The Johns Hopkins University Press. Randi, J. (1987). The Faith Healers. New York Prometheus Books.

The Medical Marketplace

Despite being split into many groups that had different ideas about the nature of disease and therapy, irregular practitioners collectively agreed that regular medicine was both ineffective and dangerous. Of course, not all critics of orthodox medicine were healers with competing medical theories. For example, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) respected his good friend Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), but was quite sure that his enthusiasm for bleeding and purging had been very harmful. Followers of the approach epitomized by Rush were all too eager to treat victims of epidemic cholera (a disease that may cause death by dehydration) with ipecac, vomits of salt and water, frequent doses of calomel, castor oil, and enemas of spirits of turpentine. Although Rush never lost faith in his therapeutic system, many Americans were attracted to healers who offered remedies and regimens that were allegedly safe, natural, and effective. Some irregulars were empirics or specialists such as, herbalists,...

The Survival Of Grecoislamic Medicine

Even where twentieth century laws regulating medical practice drove traditional practitioners underground, diligent explorers could still find them. For example, in French-ruled Algeria, traditional healers and their patients were reluctant to talk to outsiders because it was illegal for people without the proper French qualifications to perform surgery. Nevertheless, yunani doctors performed eye surgery, tooth extractions, cupping, cautery, bloodletting, and assisted in difficult births. Although anesthetic drugs were available, most traditional practitioners did not use them before surgery. Some healers claimed that their methods were so gentle that the patient did not suffer, but strong assistants were invariably needed to restrain the patient. Many people treated themselves with yunani drugs and cauterization in order to avoid the costs of seeing a doctor and because of their faith in such remedies.

The Medical Traditions of India and China

In surveys of the history of medicine, the invention of science and rational medicine was generally credited to the Greek natural philosophers who lived during the sixth century B.C.E. Accustomed to tracing the roots of Western culture back to Greece, with some slight concessions to those civilizations mentioned in the Bible, European scholars generally ignored the evolution of medicine, science, and philosophy in India and China. This peculiarly narrow focus is especially unfortunate in the history of medicine because, unlike the ancient medical traditions of Mesopotamia and Egypt, those of India and China are still very much alive. Recent scholarship, however, has made it clear that the very different paths taken in pursuit of health, healing, and systematic inquiry in China and India are well worth exploring. Historians have come to realize that the scientific and medical traditions that developed in China and India were complex, productive, and different from European traditions...

Philosophy And Medicine

References to him in later medical writings suggest great fame and success as a healer, but it was his theory of the four elements that became a major theme in the history of medicine. According to Empedocles, all things were composed of mixtures of four primary and eternal elements air, earth, water, and fire. Changes and transformations in the cosmos and the human body were simply reflections of the mixing and unmixing of the eternal elements.

Regional Distinctiveness

Fragmentary evidence in plantation records, diaries, slave narratives, interviews with former slaves, and folklore collections suggest that slaves used their own healing methods, perhaps derived from traditional African herbal medicine, in order to avoid the imposition of remedies prescribed by white doctors. Wherever possible, slaves apparently consulted black midwives, nurses, herbalists, root doctors, and magicians. In addition to diagnosing and treating illness, some black healers and magicians claimed the ability to protect slaves from whites and from other slaves. Some African healing traditions, especially those linked to spirituality and religion, as well as medicinal teas, herbs, poultices, prayers, songs, and sickbed gatherings, presumably survived in black families and communities after the Civil War.

The Medical Profession

During the colonial period, there were few legal or social obstacles to the practice of medicine. Individuals with or without special education or training could present themselves as healers. Eventually, physicians established a legally protected professional identity by banding together in professional societies that lobbied for medical licensing laws that would exclude sectarian practitioners. But claims for professional expertise and legal restraints on medical practice did not accord with

Entropy Production As An Indicator Of Ecosystem Trophic State

Entropy flow and entropy production (see Chapter 2) can be quantitatively estimated using physical modelling or calculated from observed energy flow data of biological systems. Here entropy production in lake ecosystems is examined in detail for three ecosystems located in Japan, USA, and Italy.

The river continuum theory in the light of ecosystem principles

The river continuum theory can almost be seen as a different wording of the Ecological Law of Thermodynamics applied to rivers, since it is fully compliant with it. Along a continuous gradient of changing environmental conditions, what river communities do under the prevailing conditions is in fact attempt to utilize the flow to increase its exergy, moving further away from thermodynamic equilibrium. Changing conditions along the gradient determine different constrains and therefore other processing strategies, because If more combinations and processes are offered to utilize the Exergy flow, the organization that is able to give the highest Exergy under the prevailing circumstances will be selected (Jorgensen, 1997), or alternatively as if more combinations and processes are offered to utilize the free energy flow, the organization that is able to give the greatest distance away from thermodynamic equilibrium under the prevailing circumstances will be selected (de Wit, 2005).

The Macroscopic Openness Connections To Thermodynamics

An energy flow can lead to organization (decrease in entropy, e.g., photosynthesis) or destruction (increase in entropy, e.g., a cannon ball, respiration). The same quantity of energy can destroy a wall or kill a man obviously the loss of information and negentropy is much greater in the second case. Energy and information are never equivalent as demonstrated for instance through Brillouin's refusal of Maxwell's Demon.

Late Stump Complications and Revision

Boy Amputees Stumps

Swelling of the stump, sometimes associated with erysipelas infection, likely when primary healing was attempted, for it was rare with delayed healing methods. Treatment necessitated opening the stump wound, applying leeches or, most efficaciously, making multiple and deep incisions. On survival, further treatment included reamputation Gourand reported 10 such operations between 1814 and 1815 with 9 cures.

Hammurabis Code Of Laws

When the Greek historian Herodotus visited Babylonia in the fifth century b.c.e., he reached the remarkable conclusion that the Babylonians had no doctors. The sick, he said, were taken to the marketplace to seek advice from those who had experienced similar illnesses. This story proves only that we should not take the tales told by tourists too seriously. As we have seen, Mesopotamia had a complex medical tradition. Both the empirical and the magical approach to healing were well established, but eventually the balance of power apparently tilted in favor of the magician. Evidence about the various kinds of healers who practiced the art in the region can be extracted from the most complete account of Babylonian law, the Code of Hammurabi. Today, Hammurabi (fl. 1792-1750 b.c.e), Babylonia's most famous king, is of more interest for the code of laws bearing his name than for his military and political triumphs.

Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis Face

Pulmonary Histiocytosis Pic

Congenital self-healing reticulohis-tiocytosis (Hashimoto-Pritzker disease) is a rare disease usually present at birth or within the first few days of life. It is characterized by solitary or multiple reddish-brown, pink, or purplish papulovesicu-lar lesions mainly on the scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. They tend to break down in the center, form ulcerated craters, and involute spontaneously within 2 to 3 months leaving white atrophic scars. Although the course is benign and self-limiting, it is important to differentiate this condition from histiocytosis X and other histiocytic conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed by skin biopsy.

Other Species Of Artemisia Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine

More than ten Artemisia species are used in TCM for certain gynaecological problems. According to the theory of TCM, a number of conditions, such as amenorrhea, menstrual pain and prolonged menstrual bleeding, are usually related to Qi (vital energy) and blood deficiency, Qi stagnation or blood stasis due to cold. Thus those herbs with the acrid and warm property can be used to treat such ailments with a good clinical response and various species of Artemisia which have the same property are often the principal ingredients of TCM formulae for the illnesses mentioned above (Table 1).

Efficacy and Safety of CAM

Many complementary therapies based on traditional healing practices have a rich folk history supporting their use, however there is little, if any, direct scientific evidence supporting the benefits of most forms of CAM. Much of the evidence that patients and physicians have access to is anecdotal. Some controlled trials of specific therapies have been conducted but these are often reported in journals unfamiliar to practicing physicians, are flawed, and examine treatments not widely used or available. Conducting randomized controlled trials of some forms of CAM are methodologically difficult due to the highly individualized nature of the therapies, lack of placebos, patient and provider preferences, and different beliefs about health and disease (Hilsden and Verhoef, 1998). There is a body of ethnopharmacology and basic science research on some herbal products that support a possible role in the treatment of IBD. Systematic reviews of some therapies used for common GI conditions are...

The Three Celestial Emperors Fu Hsi Shen Nung And Huang Ti

Although The Inner Canon is revered as one of the oldest and most influential of the classical Chinese medical texts, studies of medical manuscripts that were buried with their owner, probably during the second century b.c.e., and recovered in Mawangdui, Hunan, in the 1970s, have provided new insights into early Chinese medical thought. As newly recovered texts are analyzed, scholars are beginning to illuminate the philosophical foundations of Chinese medicine and the ways in which the learned physicians of the fourth to first centuries b.c.e. were able to separate themselves from shamans and other popular healers. Physicians apparently were still exploring approaches to physiology, pathology, and therapy that differed from those found in the Inner Canon. Therapeutics in the older texts included medicinal drugs, exorcism, magical and religious techniques, and surgical operations, but acupuncture, the major therapeutic technique in the Inner Canon, was not discussed in the Mawangdui...

Medical Education And Practice

Despite some unwelcome constraints, the doctor achieved the benefits of a legally defined status. As a consequence, healers who practiced without a state-approved license became subject to criminal prosecution and fines. Professional physicians argued that standards of practice would be raised by eradicating unfit practitioners, generally identified as ''empirics, fools, and women.'' However, formal requirements also excluded many skilled healers. Another unfortunate consequence of medieval legal codes was the tendency to separate medicine from surgery and diminish the status of the surgeon. Not all medical practitioners were either highly educated priest-physicians or illiterate empirics. For example, the Anglo-Saxon medical books, known as leechbooks, provide some insights into the concerns of practitioners and patients outside the realm of the ''high medical culture'' of the learned centers of Europe. Little is known about the education and practice of the typical medieval English...

Laughing Gas Ether And Surgical Anesthesia

Laughing Gas Surgical Operation

While some practitioners denounced anesthesia as a dangerous and blasphemous novelty and others adopted it without reservations, most doctors cautiously accepted it as a mixed blessing that had to be used selectively. The risks and benefits of anesthesia had to be evaluated by a new ''utilitarian calculus'' that took into consideration a host of variables, such as age, sex, race, ethnicity, the seriousness of the operation, and so forth. The rapid spread of anesthetic techniques was unprecedented in medical history, but not all patients received the blessings of painless surgery, even for major limb amputations. Some surgeons justified anesthesia by arguing that pain itself was dangerous, because it caused shock, depleted precious stores of vital energy, and damaged the body. Moreover, anesthesia encouraged patients to accept operations and allowed surgeons to refine their skills. Advocates of universal anesthetization accused doctors who insisted on the selective use of anesthetics...

Alternative Complementary And Integrative Medicine

Until the last decades of the twentieth century, historians and social scientists of medicine, as well as medical policy analysts, generally assumed that medical sectarianism, unorthodox healers, and traditional or folk practices were disappearing as modern, scientific medicine became increasingly effective and powerful. Unorthodox practitioners, whether advocates of antiquated medical theories or leaders of novel cults, seemed to have little relevance to the medical marketplace, except as sources of colorful anecdotes. It came as a surprise to the medical community when surveys conducted during the 1990s revealed that more than 30 percent of all Americans had utilized some form of alternative medicine, creating a multibillion dollar market. Further studies demonstrated that public interest in and usage of alternative medicine was increasing rather than decreasing. A major survey conducted in the early twenty-first century indicated that over 40 percent of Americans had used or were...

Paleomedicine And Surgery

Although trepanation is sometimes mistakenly referred to as ''prehistoric brain surgery,'' a successful trepanation involves the removal of a disk of bone from the cranium, without damage to the brain itself. When scientists first encountered such skulls, they assumed that the operation must have been performed after death for magical purposes. However, anthropologists have discovered that contemporary tribal healers perform trepanations for both magical and practical reasons. Prehistoric surgeons may also have had various reasons for carrying out this difficult and dangerous operation. The operation might have been an attempt to relieve headaches, epilepsy, or other disorders. In some cases, the operation might have been a rational treatment for traumatic injuries of the skull. Perhaps it was also performed as a desperate measure for intractable conditions, rather like lobotomy, or as a form of shock therapy or punishment. Despite the lack of reliable

Monasteries And Universities

By the eleventh century, some monasteries were training their own physicians. Ideally, such physicians would uphold the Christianized ideal of the healer who offered mercy and charity towards all patients, whatever their status and prognosis might be. The gap between the ideal and the real is suggested by evidence of numerous complaints about the pursuit of ''filthy lucre'' by priest-physicians. When such physicians gained permission to practice outside the monastery and offered their services to wealthy nobles, complaints about luxurious living and the decline of monastic discipline were raised.

Greco Roman Medicine

Medical treatment in the Iliad was generally free of magical practices, but when medicine failed, healers might resort to incantations and prayers. Sometimes, the surgeon would suck the site of a wound, perhaps as an attempt to draw out poisons or some ''evil influence'' in the blood. After washing the wound with warm water, physicians applied soothing drugs and consoled or distracted the patient with wine, pleasant stories, or songs. Unlike the complex Egyptian and Indian wound poultices, Greek wound remedies were ''simples'' derived from plants. Unfortunately for the Greek warriors, their physicians did not know the secret of Helen's famous Egyptian potion, nepenthe, which could dispel pain and strife and erase the memory of disease and sorrow. Indeed, the specific identities of most of the drugs referred to by Homer are obscure, although various sources suggest that the soothing agents, secret potions, and fumigants used by healers and priests of this time period probably included...

Medicine And Surgery

During this period, however, patients could still select specific kinds of practitioners out of a diverse field in order to fit their budget and their own perception of their medical condition. There is evidence that patients expected the healers they hired to produce significant results. The records of the Protomedicato, the judicial arm of the College of Medicine in Bologna, for example, contain cases where patients sued practitioners for breach of contract. That is, healers entered into contracts that promised to cure patients within a specific time. However, when the healers were actually physicians, the courts endorsed payment for services rather than for results, because physicians were professionals rather than craftsmen.

Domestic Medicine

Most families in Colonial America relied on their own resources or local healers and herbalists rather than professional physicians. Domestic medicine was preferred to imported drugs, which were either unavailable or expensive. Those who wanted to avoid doctors, or had no access to healers, depended on traditional remedies, popular herbals, and self-help books for information on how to maintain health and deal with illness and injuries. For example, Every Man His Own Doctor or, the Poor Planter's Physician (1734) was written anonymously by John Tennent (ca. 1700-1760), a Virginia physician, who denounced other doctors for their exorbitant fees and for prescribing remedies that were as bad as the disease. Despite the attacks of fellow physicians, he offered advice, not for those who could afford ''learned Advice,'' but for the poor, who needed to find the ''cheapest and easiest ways of getting well again.'' The mashes and swamps of Virginia, he warned, generated many fevers, coughs,...


If anesthetics are ''tamed inebriants,'' then alcohol should have been the drug of choice for surgery. Alcoholic preparations have been used as the ''potion of the condemned'' and in preparation for ceremonial tribal rites, such as circumcision and scarification. Unfortunately, the large doses of alcohol needed to induce stupefaction are likely to cause nausea, vomiting, and death instead of sleep. Healers could also try to induce what might be called a state of psychological anesthesia by means of mesmerism, hypnotism, shamanistic rituals,

The placebo effect

The interesting thing about placebos is that they are often very effective in their own right, particularly with psychological disorders (of the order of 30-40 per cent). Similarly, placebo effects may account for some psychotherapeutic effectiveness. There is nothing wrong with this. If a placebo helps to improve things for people, then it is useful. And it has been well established that people's attitudes and beliefs are important both to succumbing to a disorder and then to recovery from it. In fact, the placebo effect is what might lie at the basis of genuine cases of faith healing. If a person has faith in whatever the process of healing might be, then this, in and of itself, might bring about an improvement.

Food Webs

The energy flow enters the primary producer compartments and is transferred up the trophic chain by feeding interactions, grazing and then predation, losing energy (not shown) along each step, where after a few steps it has reached a terminal node called a top predator (also known, in Markov chain theory, as an absorbing state). This picture of who eats whom has several deficiencies if one wants to understand the entire connectedness as established by the matter-energy flow pattern of the ecosystem Second, the diagram shows the top predators as dead-ends for resource flow if that were the case there would be a continuous accumulation of top predator carcasses throughout the millennia that biological entities called top-predators have existed. Nature would be littered with residues of lions, hawks, owls, cougars, wolves, and other top-predators, even the fiercest of the fierce like Tyrannosaurus rex (not to mention other non-grazed or directly eaten materials such as tree trunks,...

Educating Educators

Some of the colleagues I respect most report that the most satisfying aspect of their careers has been the opportunity to help educate the next generation of physicians. It is one of the most profound and enduring sources of professional fulfillment. There is something intellectually and even spiritually rewarding about helping others to excel at the craft to which you have devoted your life. If we keep our medical students and residents so busy that they never have chances to experience teaching firsthand, we are doing not only them but also our profession a profound disservice.

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur Discovered Rabies Vaccine

One of Pasteur's simplest and most convincing experiments involved the use of specially constructed swan-neck flasks. When liquids were properly sterilized in flasks with long necks drawn out into an S-shaped curve under a flame, the medium remained sterile even though ordinary air could enter the flask. Critics could not argue that some mysterious life force had been tortured out of the medium, because if the flask was tipped so that sterile medium mixed with the germ-laden dust particles trapped in the bend of the swan neck, the medium was soon teeming with microbial life. Although almost all kinds of media could be sterilized by fairly simple means, certain apparent exceptions


For the history of the uses of this plant in the period before and after the conquest we have to rely on some colonial codices. The best known ones are the Codex Cruz Badiano and the Codex Florentino. The first is a herbal written in Nahuatl by the Aztec healer Martin de la Cruz from Tezcoco, who was at the Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco. It was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano and given to the King of Spain Carlos I in 1552. It was written rather hastily and has numerous colour illustrations of medicinal plants. There have been several attempts to identify plants from this herbal (Viesca Trevino, 1992 Valdes et al., 1992 Pineda, 1992) and most of the identifications seem to be botanically sound. The major problem with this source is that by this time the European conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlan 30 years previously had already had an impact. In addition the Nahuatl author attempted to show European sophistication in his work (Ortiz de Montellano 1990).

Medical Sects

The first wave of medical sectarianism in nineteenth-century America included Hydropaths, Thomsonians, Eclectics, Physio-Medicalists, Eclectics, and Homeopaths. Despite differences in their medical theories and therapeutic systems, members of these sects agreed that the allopaths, or so-called regular doctors, were the most dangerous quacks of all. Unorthodox practitioners saw themselves as reformers, healers, revolutionaries, professionals, and members of new philosophical schools, not as members of cults or sects. The true test of any medical system, they argued, should be patient satisfaction, especially in the case of chronic illnesses where allopaths had already failed. Critics of orthodox medicine argued that medical licensing laws infringed the rights of American to make their own decisions about health and healing. Samuel Thomson (1769-1843), a New Hampshire farmer, created a system of medicine based on herbal remedies as substitutes for the harsh drugs prescribed by orthodox...

The Medical Papyri

The Ebers papyrus, which was probably written about 1500 b.c.e., is the longest, most complete, and most famous of the medical papyri. Named after Georg Ebers, who obtained the papyrus in 1873 and published a facsimile and partial translation two years later, it is an encyclopedic collection of prescriptions, incantations and extracts of medical texts on diseases and surgery taken from at least forty older sources. The Ebers papyrus was apparently planned as a guide for the three kinds of healers those who dealt with internal and external remedies, surgeons who treated wounds and fractures, and sorcerers or exorcists who wrestled with the demons of disease. Although the ancients did not see any reason for a strict separation between natural and supernatural diseases, there was a tendency for what might be called realistic prescriptions to be grouped together with diseases that could be treated with a reasonable chance of success. Incurable disorders are generally clustered together...


Is sick (and has the following symptoms) or ''If a man suffers from (such and such) pain in (wherever it was) The description of the list of symptoms was followed by instructions for the medicines needed, their preparation, the timing and means of administration. The healer ''discovered'' the significant symptoms by listening to the patient's account of the illness, not by performing a direct physical examination of the patient's body. Although most units conclude with the comforting promise that the patient would get well, certain symptoms presaged a fatal outcome. In contrast, the ''conjurer,'' ''diviner,'' or ''priest-healer'' looked at the patient's symptoms and circumstances as omens that identified the disorder and predicted the outcome of the disease. Unlike his ''practical'' counterpart, the diviner performed a direct physical examination in order to discover signs and omens. Clearly the gods were at work if a snake fell onto the sick man's bed, because this omen indicated...

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