The Tympanic Membrane and its Landmarks

Scar Tympanic Membrane

This is the most important structure for the clinician diagnostically, because its appearance, and what can be seen through it, are by and large the only anatomic clues to what goes on inside (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4). The most visible landmark beneath the TM is the manubrium, or handle, of the malleus, the lower portion of this first ossicle. The upper portion of the manubrium has a visible prominence, seen near the top of the TM, called the short process. The...

Scarring and Tympanosclerosis

Tympanosclerotic Plaques

A normal TM is often described as pearly in appearance. In fact, it is almost transparent. Scarring, which occurs in the middle fibrous layer, destroys this lucency. Scarring may result from repeated effusions or Fig. 5.3 Peripheral tympanosclerosis with central neomembrane, left ear. Source Sanna M, Russo A, DeDonato G. Color Atlas of Otoscopy. Stuttgart Thieme 1999 Fig. 5.3 Peripheral tympanosclerosis with central neomembrane, left ear. Source Sanna M, Russo A, DeDonato G. Color Atlas of...

Noise Induced Hearing Loss

Noise Damage Audiogram

How much of the hearing loss of aging is due to noise exposure Actually, this is a difficult question that often arises in litigation, when an aging patient is seeking compensation for his hearing loss from years of industrial noise exposure. Quite certainly, the two types of loss coexist in many individuals and one aggravates the other. However, characteristic audio-metric differences are noted in the pure forms. The early loss from noise damage shows up as a dip at 4 KHz most often, with...