Indications and Contraindications

Indications ■ In patients with documented esophageal achalasia, regardless of the disease's stage

Contraindications

Not deemed fit for general anesthesia and in those with: Significant co-morbidity

Short life expectancy in whom pneumatic dilation or botulinum toxin injection represent a more reasonable therapeutic option

Extensive intra-abdominal adhesions from previous upper abdominal surgery can make the laparoscopic approach hazardous

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