Introduction

In 1913 Heller reported the first esophageal myotomy for achalasia through a left thoracotomy. Over the years, the transabdominal approach has been extensively adopted, especially in Europe. More recently, laparoscopy has emerged as the initial intervention of choice in several institutions throughout the world.

The operation consists of complete division of the two layers of esophageal muscle (longitudinal and circular fibers) and of the oblique fibers at the esophagogastric junction. A further step of the transabdominal procedure is the construction of an antireflux valve, most commonly an anterior fundoplication according to Dor.

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How to Stay Young

How to Stay Young

For centuries, ever since the legendary Ponce de Leon went searching for the elusive Fountain of Youth, people have been looking for ways to slow down the aging process. Medical science has made great strides in keeping people alive longer by preventing and curing disease, and helping people to live healthier lives. Average life expectancy keeps increasing, and most of us can look forward to the chance to live much longer lives than our ancestors.

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