Preoperative Investigation and Preparation for the Procedure

History:

Clinical evaluation:

Laboratory tests:

Endoscopy:

CT scan, ultrasound, or MRI:

In emergency cases:

Alcohol, hepatitis, recent overeating or overdrinking

Hematemesis, melena, encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, nutritional status, splenomegaly, bleeding tendency

Blood cell count, bilirubin, albumin, ALT, AST, prothrombin time, ammonia, total bile acid, indocyanine green test

Assessment of esophagogastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy, searching for the bleeding point

Assessment of collateral vessels, portal flow, ascites, searching for hepatoma

Volume resuscitation, placement of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube, intratracheal intubation (when indicated)

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