STEP 2Exposure of operative field

The operative field is exposed by retraction of the viscera with three Deaver retractors positioned at right angles to each other. The inferior one retracts the hepatic flexure of the colon toward the feet, the medial one displaces the descending duodenum medially and the superior retractor retracts the liver and gallbladder toward the head. Alternatively, a self-retaining retractor may be used to accomplish the same exposure. The posterior peritoneum is often intensely "stained" with portasystemic collateral veins.

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How to Stay Young

How to Stay Young

For centuries, ever since the legendary Ponce de Leon went searching for the elusive Fountain of Youth, people have been looking for ways to slow down the aging process. Medical science has made great strides in keeping people alive longer by preventing and curing disease, and helping people to live healthier lives. Average life expectancy keeps increasing, and most of us can look forward to the chance to live much longer lives than our ancestors.

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