Lateral retraction of Hartmann's pouch is maintained by a grasper, this time coming from the subxiphoid port.
The cystic duct is incised through the right (A). The cystic valve can occasionally make this difficult.
A No. 4 ureteric catheter with an end hole is inserted through the Olsen-Reddick cholangiogram clamp into the cystic duct and the clamp closed around the duct (B).
Operative cholangiography is then performed with aid of C-arm fluoroscopy. Cholangiography confirms the biliary anatomy and reveals the common duct stones, allowing laparoscopic duct exploration.
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For centuries, ever since the legendary Ponce de Leon went searching for the elusive Fountain of Youth, people have been looking for ways to slow down the aging process. Medical science has made great strides in keeping people alive longer by preventing and curing disease, and helping people to live healthier lives. Average life expectancy keeps increasing, and most of us can look forward to the chance to live much longer lives than our ancestors.