Herpes Simplex Virus Ebooks Catalog

Stop Herpes Now

You'll discover: What foods are bad for you, encouraging outbreaks. What foods are good for discouraging outbreaks. The connection between genital herpes and stress. What herbs actually suppress the herpes virus. How to heal your body naturally and safely. How to manage stress in your life.

Stop Herpes Now Overview


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Acipenserid herpesvirus 1 AciHV1 An

Unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, isolated from juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, suffering mortality during rearing in north-west American hatcheries. The virus replicates in white sturgeon epidermal cell cultures, inducing syncytia. Associated with epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis in the fish. The virus could be transmitted to juvenile white sturgeon but not to trout. Synonym white sturgeon herpesvirus 1. Hedrick RP et al (1991) Dis Aquat Org 11, 49

Herpesviruslike viruses

Alzheimer Histology Autofluorescence

Farley et al. (1972) found a herpes-like infection in the haemocytes of moribund American oysters, C. virginica, held in thermal effluent (28-30 C, within the temperature tolerance range of C. virginica) from a power plant in Maine. Mortalities of 52 were attributed to this infection, which was characterized by Feulgen-positive nuclear inclusions in the haemocytes of all moribund specimens (Fig. 20.1). Similar inclusions were found in wild, apparently healthy, oysters at the site of collection (Farley et al., 1972). Non-enveloped virions, 7090 nm in diameter, were found in the nucelus of infected cells. Enveloped particles, 200-250 nm in diameter, occurred in the cytoplasm. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies* (Cowdry, 1934), morphological and nucleic acid characteristics resemble those of other herpes-type viruses (Farley, 1978 Francki et al., 1991). Herpesvirus Tellina virus (TV) Herpes-type Herpes-type Herpes-type Herpes-type Herpes-like virus Fig. 20.1. Intranuclear Herpes...

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6 CeHV6 An

Unassigned species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Genome DNA is 52 G+C. Causes a severe, often fatal, exan-thematous disease in captive vervet monkeys. Antibodies to the virus are rare among monkeys in the wild but the infection spreads rapidly when they are brought together in captivity. Sub-clinical infections are common, but in severe cases there are necrotic hemorrhagic lesions in the lungs, intestine, liver and other organs. Other monkeys, mice and rabbits are resistant to infection. Virus replicates with CPE in vervet monkey kidney cell cultures, also in human thyroid, Vero cells and many other cell lines. Produces no pocks on the CAM and does not kill the embryo. The virus is strongly cell-associated. Antigenically very closely related to Human herpesvirus 3. Synonyms Liverpool vervet monkey virus vervet monkey herpesvirus SA12 virus.

Medical Lake macaque herpesvirus

Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9. Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) A species in the genus 'Marek's disease-like viruses' in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Isolated from a kidney cell culture of normal turkeys. Not pathogenic for turkeys. Causes viremia in chickens and protective immunity against Marek's disease virus 1 (GaHV2). Used as a vaccine against Marek's disease. The complete DNA sequence of MeHV-1 was obtained recently and compared to that of GaHV-2. Synonym turkey herpesvirus 1. 8-methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) A naturally occurring furocoumarin which has photosensitizing properties in the skin of guinea pigs and humans. Albino guinea pigs with cutaneous infection by Human herpesvirus showed significant favorable response to treatment with this drug and long-wave UV light. Treatment was effective even after virus multiplication had begun and lesions had appeared.

Callitrichine herpesvirus 2 CalHV2 An

Unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from the salivary glands of white-lipped marmosets, Sanguinus fuscicollis. Synonym marmoset cytomegalovirus. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. There is only one serotype, which has worldwide distribution. A natural infection in dogs, often silent but may cause necrotizing rhinitis and pneumonia, frequently fatal in newborn puppies. The necropsy findings are predominantly disseminated focal necroses and hemorrhages in kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, thymus and brain. May cause tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in older animals but this condition can also be caused by an adenovirus. Replicates in primary dog kidney cell cultures and all canine cell lines that have been tested with CPE. No CPE in human, bovine or porcine cell cultures. Synonyms canine herpesvirus canine tra-cheobronchitis virus kennel cough virus.

Columbid herpesvirus 1 CoHV1 An

Unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. A natural and widespread infection of pigeons. Not transmissible to chickens, ducks, geese or quail, but budgerigars and turtle doves can be infected experimentally. Related viruses have been isolated from falcons, falconid herpesvirus 1, and owls, strigid her-pesvirus 1. Only one serotype has been found. Causes conjunctivitis, respiratory lesions and focal necrosis of the liver, but is usually carried by apparently normal birds as a latent infection. Replicates with CPE in primary chicken embryo fibrob-lasts. Propagated on the CAM it produces plaques and kills the embryo in 4 days. Synonyms inclusion disease of pigeons virus pigeon herpesvirus.

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 10 CeHV

10) An unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. Appears to be a common infection of rhesus monkeys but there is no evidence that it causes disease in them. Isolated by co-cultivation of rhesus blood leukocytes with simian or human fibroblasts such as Wl-38 or MRC-5 cells. Causes CPE within 6-8 days, which slowly progresses. On staining with acridine orange, multiple green inclusions are seen in the nucleus but not in the cytoplasm. More than half the virus infectivity is cell-associated. Experimental inoculation of mice, hamsters and rabbits caused no obvious disease. Infection of rhesus monkeys resulted in a rise in antibodies. No cross-neutralization could be demonstrated with a range of other human and simian her-pesviruses. There appear to be at least two antigenic types. Synonym rhesus leukocyte-associated herpesvirus, strain 1.

Salivary gland virus See cytomegalovirus group

Salmonid herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a post-spawning steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri. Chum salmon fry, Oncorhynchus keta, are also susceptible. Synonym herpesvirus salmonis. salmonid herpesvirus 2 (SaHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, in Japan. Causes renal failure and liver atrophy in yamame (landlocked O. masou). sand rat herpesvirus Synonym for murid herpesvirus 6. sand rat nuclear inclusion agent Synonym for murid herpesvirus 6.

Herpesvirus replication generates inclusions in the nucleus

Herpesviruses enter the cell by fusing their envelopes with the plasma membrane, whereon the naked nucleocapsids migrate to nuclear pores, possibly along microtubules (Granzow et al., 1997 Sodeik et al., 1997) reviewed by Smith and Enquist (2002) . Nuclear inclusions housing herpesvirus DNA replication are globular and can occupy the majority of the nucleus (de Bruyn Kops and Knipe, 1988 Randall and Dinwoodie, 1986 Taylor et al., 2003). They are identified through the presence of the viral DNA-binding protein encoded by the UL29 gene, which is also known as infected cell protein 8 (ICP8). A minimum set of seven genes, UL5, UL8, UL9, UL29, UL30, UL42, and UL52, has been identified as necessary for viral DNA replication (Challberg, 1991). A plasmid trans-fection system has shown in vitro these can form globular nuclear compartments that are sites of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and visually are similar to those formed during infection (Lukonis and Weller, 1997 Zhong and...

Human Herpes Virus8Related Tumors Human Herpes Virus8

With the HIV epidemic in the early 1980s, homosexual men were found to have a 20-fold higher risk than other risk groups in developing Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).The uneven distribution among HIV risk groups lead to the search for an infectious transmissible agent, which eventually led to the discovery of the KS herpes virus or human herpes virus-8 in 1994. HHV-8, a gammaherpesvirus2 (genus Rhadinovirus) is a large (165 kb) double-stranded DNA virus that has an extensive group of regulatory genes obtained from the host genome.142 The DNA sequences of HHV-8 on discovery were found to be homologous to, yet distinct from genes of gamma-herpesvirinae, herpesvirus saimiri, and EBV.143

Pseudorabies virus PRV See Suid herpesvirus

Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated in Brazil in 1931 from parrots especially of the genus Amazona, in which it causes weakness, diarrhea, coma and death in 3-7 days. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus sp, are also highly susceptible. Disease is not produced on experimental inoculation of guinea pigs, mice, pigeons, chickens or turkeys. The virus has also been isolated from aviary birds in the USA. It can be propagated on the CAM where it produces white plaques and kills the embryo. Replicates with CPE in chick kidney cell cultures. Synonyms Pacheco's disease virus parrot herpesvirus Pacheco's parrot virus

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 17 CeHV17

Cercopithecine herpesvirus SA8 Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2. Cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus, isolated from British red deer with ocular infection. Synonym red deer herpesvirus. Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2) Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2) A species in the genus Varicellovirus, isolated from a reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. Synonyms Rangifer tarandus her-pesvirus reindeer herpesvirus.

Gorilla rhadinoherpesvirus 1 GorRHV1

During a study of chimpanzees and gorillas from Cameroon and Gabon, a herpesvirus genetically similar to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus was detected by PCR amplification of green sea turtle herpesvirus gray patch disease agent of green sea turtle Synonym for chelonid herpes-virus 1.

Herpes gladiatorum herpes rugbeiorum

Herpes simiae virus Synonym for her-pesvirus B. herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 There are two antigenic types herpes simplex type 1 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 1 herpes simplex type 2 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 2. herpes simplex virus group herpes simplex virus group Synonym for the genus Simplexvirus. herpes venatorum Synonym for scrum-pox. Herpesviridae A diverse family of DNA viruses with characteristic morphology. Classification is based formally on genetic content. The virion is 100-200nm in diameter. Buoyant density (CsCl) 1.20-1.29g ml. Consists of four structural components (1) the core, a protein fibrillar spool on which the DNA is wrapped (2) the capsid, 100-110nm in diameter, composed of 12 pentameric and 150 hexameric capsomeres arranged with icosahedral symmetry (3) the tegument, an amorphous asymmetrical layer between the capsid and (4) the envelope, a bilayer membrane with surface projections. The capsomeres are hexagonal in cross-section and have a hollow...

Walleye epidermal hyperplasia See percid herpesvirus

Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1 (WEHV-1) A species in the genus Epsilonretrovirus. Causes discrete epidermal hyperplasia on the skin of walleyes distinct from the diffuse epidermal hyperplasia caused by percid herpesvirus 1. The virus is distinguishable from Walleye dermal sarcoma virus by phyloge-netic analysis of the genome.

Liverpool vervet herpesvirus Synonym for

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9. lorisine herpesvirus 1 (LoHV-1) lorisine herpesvirus 1 (LoHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from kinkajou, Potos flavus, skin and kidney cell culture showing spontaneous CPE. Replicates in a narrow range of cell cultures kinkajou, owl monkey and Vero cells with CPE. Produces A-type intranuclear inclusion bodies. Probably non-pathogenic for kinkajou, rabbit and owl monkey. Synonyms kinkajou herpesvirus kinka-jou kidney virus herpesvirus pottos. Lucke frog herpesvirus Synonym for ranid herpesvirus 1. Lymphocryptovirus A genus in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Gamma-herpesvirinae. Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) is the type species and Cercopithecine herpesviruses 12,14 and 15, Pongine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 3 are other members. The viruses all have a distinctive genome structure. In EBV, the virion DNA of about 180 kb is linear and bounded by terminal repeats of about 500 bp, which fuse after infection of...

Digital Herpes Simplex

Recurrent herpes simplex despite being rarely diagnosed is not infrequent. Any recurrent blistering process around a finger nail, particularly when accompanied by early lymphangitis and radiating pain, should prompt a cytological examination. The blister roof is opened and a Tzanck smear taken for microscopic investigation as well as for virus culture or molecular biological tests. Early blisters with clear watery contents exhibit mainly keratinocytes, some of which are giant and multinucleated. Securing the blister roof for histological sections may be necessary to rule out an early bullous impetigo (run-around). Herpes zoster infrequently extends to the digits. Tzanck tests demonstrate an essentially similar picture to that of herpes simplex.

Phalacrocoracid herpesvirus 1 PhHV

1) An unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated on the CAM from a young little pied cormorant, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos. Other birds and rodents are resistant. No evidence of pathogenicity for cormorants. Replicates on the CAM, producing pocks. Synonyms cormorant herpesvirus 1 Lake Victoria cormorant herpesvirus. phasianid herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Gallid herpesvirus 1. phasianid herpesvirus 2 Synonym for Gallid herpesvirus 2.

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 4 CeHV4 An

Unassigned species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a vervet monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops. Synonym SA15 virus. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5 (CeHV-5) A species in the genus Cytomegalovirus. Isolated from vervet monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus, kidney and salivary gland cell cultures. Focal lesions were observed in monolayer cultures. Giant cells and eosinophilic inclusion bodies were seen. Synonyms African green monkey cytomegalovirus macaque monkey virus.

Channel catfish herpesvirus CCHV

Ictalurid herpesvirus 1. chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Epizootics of grey patch disease were observed in green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, kept in captivity in the West Indies. Two types of lesion were seen papules and spreading grey patches 7-8 weeks after hatching. Intranuclear inclusions were present in sections of the lesions and herpesvirus-like particles were present in scrapings from the lesions. The disease could be transmitted between turtles by a cell-free extract. Fibropapillomas of both green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, in Florida appear to be caused by the same chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1) herpesvirus, found only in association with the tumor cells. The virus could not be cultivated in chelonian cell lines, which support the replication of other chelonian herpesviruses. Synonyms green sea turtle herpesvirus grey patch disease agent of green sea turtle grey patch disease of...

Herpesviridae Neoplasms

Three herpesviruses of salmonids have been reported to be oncogenic. Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) causes cutaneous carcinoma (Fig. 3.7) in coho salmon, chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) and rainbow trout (Kimura et al., 1981 Yoshimizu et al., 1987, 1988). This virus was originally isolated from apparently healthy cherry salmon, (Kimura et al., 1981). Yamame tumour virus (YTV) was first isolated from a neoplasm on the jaw of a cherry salmon (Sano et al., 1983), and coho salmon tumour virus (CSTV) was isolated from neoplasms on coho salmon (Sano, 1988). These three viruses are serologically related (Hedrick et al., 1987 Sano, 1988), and OMV and YTV are strains of Herpesvirus salmonis Type 2 (Eaton et al., 1991b). There is strong evidence that both OMV (Yoshimizu et al., 1987) and YTV (Sano et al., 1983) are oncogenic virus was re-isolated from neoplasms of experimentally infected fish. Morrison et al., (1996) observed virions with the appearance of...

Nuclear inclusions also form as sites of herpesvirus assembly The assemblon

A second prominent nuclear inclusion induced by herpesvirus infection is the assemblon (Ward et al., 1996b). This is the site where capsid proteins accumulate and assemble into nucleocapsids (Fig. 8B). The assembly of herpesvirus nucleocapsids has been researched in great detail at the ultrastructural level facilitated by a cell-free system for reconstituting the particles (Heymann et al., 2003 Newcomb et al., 1994,1996). The mature herpesvirus capsid is icosahedral with a T 16 symmetry and is composed of 150 hexons and 11 pentons of the major capsid protein UL19. The place of the remaining penton is taken by a 12-mer of the portal protein UL6, which by analogy with bacteriophage may be the site of genome entry. Nucleocapsids mature from fragile procapsids, through B capsids that lack DNA and contain the internal scaffold protein UL26.5, to C capsids that contain the viral genome. The relationship between assemblons and sites of viral DNA replication has been a topic of some...

Marmoset herpesvirus Synonym for

Saimiriine herpesvirus 1. maturation The final process in assembly of the mature progeny virion during replication. It may occur inside the cell (e.g. picornaviruses, reoviruses, papova-viruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and poxviruses), in which case cell lysis is needed for egress. Alternatively, maturation may be linked with egress from the cell as seen with most enveloped viruses (e.g. negative-strand viruses, togaviruses and retroviruses).

Macropodid herpesvirus 1 MaHV1 An

Unassigned species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated from a culture of kidney cells of a parma wallaby, Macropus parma. The animal was one of a number with a fatal generalized disease taken from Kawan Island in Auckland Bay, New Zealand. The culture developed foci of CPE which extended rapidly. Experimental infection of Parma wallabies causes a severe generalized disease with lesions in lungs and liver. Antibodies are found in a wide range of macropods (kangaroos and wallabies) from different parts of Australia. No CPE in bovine, mouse or hamster cells. The DNA is distinct from other herpesviruses, G+C 53 . macropodid herpesvirus 1 (MaHV-1) Synonym Parma wallaby herpesvirus.

Cytoplasmic inclusions form during late stages of herpesvirus tegumentation The cytoplasmic assembly compartment

The tegument layer of alphaherpesviruses is composed of at least 15 different proteins (Mettenleiter, 2002). US11, UL17, UL47, UL48, and UL49 are components of the tegument, and all are localized to the nucleus (if not exclusively) during the productive life cycle of the virus (Fuchs et al., 2002 Hutchinson et al., 2002 Kopp et al., 2002 Roller and Roizman, 1992 Taus et al., 1998). UL48 may play a role in egress from the nucleus, though this has not been unequivocally established (Mossman et al., 2000). Therefore, it is likely that some tegument proteins are acquired in or during viral egress from the nuclear inclusions. Recently, cytoplasmic aggresome-like structures have been described in cells infected with HHV-2.1 These contain the major capsid protein, tegument proteins, envelope glycoproteins, and markers for the Golgi complex (Nozawa et al., 2004). The latter finding is particularly interesting because herpesvirus envelopment involves membranes from the TGN (Mettenleiter et...

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 7 CeHV7 An

Unassigned species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated from captive patas monkeys, Cercopithecus patas, with a severe exanthematous disease. Synonyms patas monkey herpesvirus delta herpesvirus. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8 (CeHV-8) A species in the genus Cytomegalovirus. Causes persistent infection of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Genome DNA is 52 G+C. Synonym rhesus monkey cytomegalovirus. Cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (CeHV-9) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. Causes mild exanthematous disease in captive rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Synonyms Medical Lake macaque her-pesvirus simian varicella herpesvirus, Liverpool vervet herpesvirus.

Nuclear inclusions associated with herpesvirus replication are linked to ND10PML Bodies

Replication compartments are formed from a number of different discrete foci that are induced early in infection and whose interrelatedness is not fully understood. The initial stages of productive herpesvirus infection are, however, intimately linked with nuclear structures called ND10 bodies (illustrated in Fig. 8) Ishov and Maul (1996), Maul et al. (1996), review by Borden (2002) . Live cell studies have shown that the immediate early regulatory protein ICP4, which binds viral DNA, forms discrete foci as early as 30-min postinfection (Fig. 8A). These initially appear close to the nuclear envelope, possibly at sites where the genome first enters the nucleus following capsid disassembly at nuclear pores (Everett and Murray, 2005), and are then seen throughout the nucleus (Everett et al., 2004). ICP4 foci are seen juxtaposed to the ND10 marker promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) some 60-min later. The early and late regulatory protein ICP27 is recruited to ICP4 foci 2-h postinfection...


Herpesviruses are large dsDNA viruses with genomes ranging in size from 120 to 250 kbp. Herpesvirus genes are expressed in a regulated cascade starting with the immediate early a genes, then early p genes, and finally two subsets of late g genes, g1 and g2. Complete herpesvirus particles have four main layers, the core containing DNA, an icosahedral capsid, a poorly defined layer of protein called tegument, and finally the viral envelope containing several glycoproteins. Genome synthesis and packaging and capsid assembly occur in inclusions in the nucleus. Nucleocapsids then obtain tegument in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm, or both, and the viral envelope is acquired exclusively in the cytoplasm see Mettenleiter (2002) and Mettenleiter et al. (2006) for more thorough analysis . The transfer of virus from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and acquisition of tegument appears well defined for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) (Roffman et al., 1990) but is controversial for the...


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in HIV positive patients with advanced disease and low CD4 counts (< 100 cells jal) is common and is a well-documented cause of retinitis, colitis, adrenalitis and radiculopathy. In patients with renal allografts and bone marrow transplants, CMV may cause pneumonitis on an immunopathogenic basis and this is frequently fatal.

Herpes simplex

Herpes Finger

Distal digital herpes simplex infection may affect the terminal phalanx as a primary herpetic 'whitlow' or start as an acute, intensely painful paronychia (Figures 5.37, 5.38). It is relatively common in dental staff, anaesthetists and those involved with the care of the mouth and upper respiratory tract in unconscious patients. Recurrent forms are generally less severe and have a milder clinical course than the initial infection. It is important to exclude primary or recurrent herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of every vesiculopustular finger infection. The typical appearance of the lesions with disproportionately severe pain, the absence of pus in the confluent, multiloculated, Primary herpes simplex herpetic 'whitlow'. Primary herpes simplex herpetic 'whitlow'.

Herpes neuropathy

Herpes virus remains in a latent state in the dorsal root ganglion or trigeminal ganglion. Motor signs are infrequent (herpes zoster), and are caused by radiculopathy. Motor impairment occurs in the corresponding myotome to the sensory distribution. Long standing radicular pain that resembles diabetic neuropathy or infiltrative radiculopathy may be caused by herpes reactivation without the distinctive rash (zoster sine herpete). Cranial nerve palsies are also common, include oculomotor and facial nerve palsies, and optic neuritis or vestibulocochlear impairment (Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). Herpes simplex or Herpes zoster (chicken pox) infection can come out of latency in a sensory ganglion. Herpes zoster occurs frequently in HIV patients and patients recovering from chemotherapy. The virus migrates down the sensory nerve fibers to the skin, causing tissue damage and inflammation. The pain syndromes associated with post-herpetic neuralgia may result from altered CNS pain pathways, aberrant...

Herpes zoster

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both chickenpox, the primary illness, and herpes zoster, which follows reactivation of the virus in the nerve ganglia. In zoster, pain, fever, and malaise may occur before erythematous papules develop in the area of the affected dermatome most commonly in the thoracic area. Vesicles develop over several days, crusting over as they resolve. Secondary bacterial infection is common. Some patients develop episodes of pain in the affected area postherpetic neuralgia after clearance of the rash. Skin lesions and nasopharyngeal secretions can transmit chickenpox. Herpes zoster Herpes zoster Herpes zoster Herpes zoster

Herpes Simplex Virus

Linear esophageal ulcers caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. Infection with HSV-1 and -2 leads to stomatitis and esophagitis post-transplantation without acyclovir prophylaxis. Additionally, paronychia, corneal ulcers, encephalitis, genital lesions, disseminated involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and liver, and interstitial nephritis has been seen. HSV-6 causes exanthem subitum in children, mononucleosis, and hepatitis. There has been some evidence that reactivation infections may be associated with rejection in transplant recipients. Both reactivation and reinfection may occur. HSV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Prevention of these infections has been achieved using prophylactic acyclovir following transplantation. If clinical symptoms occur from HSV, they usually are treated with acyclovir adjusted for renal function. 94 of adults have evidence of a prior VZV infection. In those patients previously infected, antibody titers increase following...

General Non Antiretroviral

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 and -2) 126 Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 133 Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 135 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 135 Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) and other Poxviruses 137 Acyclovir 143 Valacyclovir 154 Famciclovir 160 Penciclovir 166 Ganciclovir 169 Valganciclovir 174 Ribavirin 178 Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccine 352 Cytomegalovirus Vaccine 355 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine 357 Parainfluenza Virus Vaccine 359

Epsteinbarr Virusrelated Tumors Epstein Barr Virus

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus of the Lymphocrytovirus genus,1 was first discovered by electron microscopy in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells in 1964.2 Subsequently, the complete (172,282 bp) nucleotide sequence of EBV (B95-8 strain) was established in 1984.3 Like all herpesviruses, EBV has latent and productive (lytic) phases in its life cycle, the former maintaining the virus long term in its host and the latter potentiating virus production and spread. Using a distinct set of latent genes EBV has oncogenic capability and the ability to induce immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro.4

Treatment And Survival Of Ks

The discovery of HHV-8 in all forms of KS has raised the possibility of using antiviral agents to target this virus. HIV-infected individuals that used foscarnet instead of ganciclovir to treat cytomegalovirus disease had a considerably longer time of their existing KS progressing to a more severe form.204 In another trial, the use of ganciclovir for treatment of cytomegalovirus disease reduced the risk of developing KS.205 A pilot study using cidofovir for the treatment of AIDS-associated and classic KS showed no effect on disease progression, no decrease in viral load of HHV-8 among seven patients, and no change in expression of early lytic and latent gene expressions from cutaneous KS lesions. Only one of seven patients demonstrated decreased production of a late lytic gene.206

Aidsassociated Nonhodgkins Lymphoma

22 of 24 patients with a progression free survival of 23 months. These patients had favorable prognostic factors (median CD4+ lymphocyte count of 233 mm3 ml).119 Enhanced toxicity of rituximab and CHOP chemotherapy was recently noted in a large multicenter trial conducted by the AMC.60 The addition of rituximab to standard-dose CHOP as compared to CHOP alone led to increased infectious complications and deaths attributable to sepsis. It is possible that delayed recovery of humoral immunity could contribute to this increased risk of life-threatening bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients.There have been several reports on the feasibility and efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant for ARL.69,95 It is reasonable to assume that patients with well-controlled HIV and good performance status should be considered candidates for this therapy. Newer approaches that may benefit patients with ARL include EBV specific cytotoxic T cells and agents that...

Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumerate Viread

Tenofovir is a nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The best-known nucleotide analogues are the antivirals, ade-fovir (Hepsera) and cidofovir (Vistide), used for the treatment of hepatitis B and cytomegalovirus infections. Adefovir was discontinued as an HIV therapy due to proximal renal tubular dysfunction. See Fig. 2.13 for names, structure, and approved uses of tenofovir. It is FDA-approved for the treatment of HIV infection in combination with other anti-HIV therapies. The recommended dosage for tenofovir is 300 mg taken orally once each day. The lower number of dosages per day increases the probability that the patient will exercise medication compliance (167). The medication is in tablet form and may be taken with or without food. If patients have a decreased kidney function, the medication may need to be taken less frequently. Tenofovir resistance occurs and may be

Hemolytic anemia Reported rarely

Concomitant acy-clovir nearly doubles the risk of indinavir-associated renal complications. In one study, events occurred in nearly 26 of the cases, many of which could have been avoided. Careful monitoring should be done if acyclovir is prescribed with indinavir (265).


AIDS malignancies have been recognized as a major complication of the HIV disease course, and the high mortality rate in AIDS patients is in part due to this complication. A number of factors have been implicated to be playing a role in the increase incidence of malignancies in AIDS patients. These factors include immunosuppression and a deficient immune surveillance by T cells in eliminating the transformed cells viral cofactors such as EBV and KSHV have also been associated with malignant transformation of the infected cells. The prognosis of ARL in HIV-infected individuals was extremely poor prior to the HAART era, but the advent of HAART, there was a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of ARL in these patients.The survival rate has improved, especially for those ARL that were found to be associated with herpesviruses such as EBV and KSHV There were a substantial decrease in the number of cases of KS and NHL, in association with HAART, and the decrease in incidence appear to be...

Abelson murine leukemia virus

Acciptrid herpesvirus 1 (AcHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae, isolated from a nesting bald eagle, Haliaetus leucocephalus. Synonym bald eagle herpesvirus. An antiviral agent. Inhibits poliovirus RNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibits Human herpesvirus 1 multiplication in vitro. Does not interfere with attachment, penetration or DNA synthesis, but interrupts a late stage in virus assembly and or maturation.

Nurse Practitioner John Hunter Clinic Chelsea and Westminster Hospital

After graduating with a science degree in 1983 Jane worked in an analytical chemistry lab before entering the nursing profession in 1985. Following nurse training she worked for four years as a medical nurse. In 1992 Jane left the UK and worked on an inpatient HIV unit in New York City. In 1995 she returned to the UK and studied for the Post Graduate Diploma in Health Promotion at Southbank University. In 1996 she started to work in sexual health and qualified as a contraception nurse in 2001. She was awarded an MSc in sexually transmitted infections and HIV by University College, London in 2004. Jane is the nursing representative on the Herpes Simplex Advisory Panel within The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. Jane's main interest within sexual health is the effect of stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, and she has presented both nationally and internationally her research regarding stigma and genital herpes infection. She is currently a nurse...

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acyclic nucleoside analogs A series of antiviral compounds active against various species in the family Herpesviridae. They include acyclovir, bucyclovir, ganci-clovir, penciclovir and 2HM-HBG. acycloguanosine 9-(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl) guanine A nucleoside analog. An antiviral agent with a potent and highly specific action against Human herpesvirus 1, 2 and 3 both in vitro and in animal models of skin, eye and brain infections. It is only weakly active against Human herpesvirus 5. The drug is selectively phosphorylated by herpesvirus-induced thymidine kinase, and once phosphorylated is a potent inhibitor of herpesvirus-induced DNA polymerase. In a clinical study, 24 patients with dendritic corneal epithelial ulcers were treated by minimal wiping debridement, 12 then receiving the drug topically as eye ointment, the others being given a placebo. Seven of the placebo patients showed recurrence of herpetic corneal lesions within a week. There was no recurrence in the patients receiving...

S23dihydroxypropyladenine An

Form, araATP, by cellular kinases it inhibits viral DNA synthesis at lower concentrations than are required to inhibit host cell DNA synthesis, by inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase. It neither directly inactivates virus nor prevents attachment. In the body it is speedily converted to the hypoxanthine, with a decline to less than 50 of the original antiviral activity. It is active against herpesvirus and poxvirus less so against adenovirus and papovavirus. The drug has no action against RNA viruses. Although acyclovir is the drug of choice for treatment of herpes simplex or varicella-zoster infections, adenine arabinoside appears useful for treatment of acyclovir-resistant mutant viruses. Synonyms vidarabine araA vira-A.

Adenoassociated virus 16 AAV16

Replication is dependent upon the presence of a helper adenovirus for complete virus production, but infectious DNA and antigens demonstrable by immuno-fluorescence are made in the presence of a helper herpes-type virus. Can also establish a latent infection in the absence of a helper virus. Replicates in cells which support adenovirus replication to a higher titer than the adenovirus whose replication may be depressed. Not genetically related to adenovirus. Mature virus particles contain either positive or negative strands of DNA which are complementary, and after extraction anneal to form double-stranded DNA. There are a number of serotypes. The type species is type 2. Types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are primate adeno-associated viruses. There are also bovine, avian, canine, ovine and equine types. Antibodies can be found in human sera, but none of these viruses is known to be pathogenic. The use of AAV as a vector for potential gene therapy in a clinical...

Conjunctivitis And Dacryocystitis Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis in the newborn infant usually is due to chemical and mechanical irritation caused by the instillation of silver nitrate drops or ointment into the eye in order to prevent gonorrheal ophthalmia. Chemical conjunctivitis differs from infective forms in that it becomes apparent almost immediately after the instillation. The most common causes of infectious conjunctivitis in descending order of frequency are Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus spp., inclusion conjunctivitis caused by groups A and B Streptococcus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, herpes simplex virus, echoviruses, and Mycoplasma hominis (18). Clostridia and peptostreptococci were also implicated as probable causes of neonatal conjunctivitis (19).

Amphotropic murine type C virus A strain

A cloning-amplifying vector consisting of repeat units of herpes simplex virus (HSV) defective genomes. Can replicate in the presence of standard HSV helper virus. Co-transfection of cells with helper virus DNA and amplicon generates concatameric defective genomes composed of multiple reiterations of the repeats. Foreign DNA sequences can be introduced to form concatameric chimeric defective genomes that are efficiently packaged and can be stably propagated in serially passaged virus stocks. 2. The product nucleic acid obtained from a polymerase chain reaction.

Amplified reverse transcriptase AmpRT

Anatid herpesvirus 1 (AnHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Differs from other her-pesviruses with respect to its structure and maturation. Mature virus particles are seen accumulated in long extensions of the endoplasmic reticulum their size varies between 160 and 380nm, and they are embedded in an osmiophilic matrix. In addition, capsids (about 80nm in diameter) and developmental stages of the viral nucleoid (about 40nm in diameter) are encountered in the nuclei of infected cells. A natural infection in domestic ducks, and possibly of mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, in the UK. There is nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea, with up to 97 mortality. At post-mortem examination petechial bleedings in mucosal membranes and many organs are prevalent. In less acute cases hemorrhagic or pseudomembra-nous pharyngitis, esophagitis and cloacitis are frequently observed. Typical herpesvirus particles are observed by electron microscopy in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of...

Anterior poliomyelitis virus Synonym for

Aotine herpesvirus 1 and 3 (AoHV-1 AoHV-3) Two tentative species in the genus Cytomegalovirus. Found in owl monkeys, Aotus trivergatus. See also Herpesviridae. Synonym herpesvirus aotus 1 and 3. Ebeling A et al (1983) J Virol 47, 421 aotine herpesvirus 2 (AoHV-2) A strain of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) isolated from a kidney cell culture of an owl monkey, Aotus trivergatus. Does not cross-react serologically with aotine herpesviruses 1 or 3. Restriction endonuclease and anti-genic studies indicate that it is a bovine virus, perhaps picked up as a contaminant of owl monkey kidney cell cultures or an isolate from an owl monkey accidentally infected with BHV-4. aphidicolin A cyclic compound isolated from the fungus, Cephalosporum aphidi-cola, which inhibits cellular DNA polymerase alpha and DNA polymerases of vaccinia and herpesviruses.

Aseptic lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Asinine herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 6. asinine herpesvirus 2 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 7. asinine herpesvirus 3 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 8. Ateline herpesvirus 1 (AtHV-1) A species in the genus Simplexvirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, isolated from a fatal infection of a 5-month-old female spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, born in a Californian zoo. The virus kills suckling mice and marmosets on inoculation. Synonym spider monkey herpesvirus. Ateline herpesvirus 2 (AtHV-2) A species in the genus Rhadinovirus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, which infects spider monkeys. Synonym herpes ateles 2. ateline herpesvirus 3 (AtHV-3) An unas-signed member of the family Herpesviridae. Originally isolated from a cell culture of kidney tissue from a Guatemalan spider monkey, Ateles geof-froyi, which developed characteristic herpes-type CPE. Four isolates from peripheral lymphocytes of Colombian spider monkeys, Ateles fusciceps robustus, are antigenically slightly...

Gene Transfer Vectors

There are two main types of gene delivery vectors viral and non-viral vectors. Retroviruses lentiviruses, recombinant herpes simplex virus, adeno-viruses, and adeno-associated viruses are the most common viral vectors that have been used for the delivery of genes into the CNS. More recently, there have been studies also about the possible use of Baculoviruses (Lehtolainen, 2002, Tani, 2003) Semliki Forest viruses (SFV) (Lundstrom, 2001), Sindbis virus (Ehrengruber, 2002) and recombinant Simian virus-40 (SV40) (Cordelier, 2003) for gene therapy in the brain.

Residual signs may occur with Bells palsy These include

Grogan PM, Gronseth GS (2001) Practice parameters steroids, acyclovir and surgery for References Bell's palsy (an evidence based review). Neurology 56 830-836 Schmutzhard E (2001) Viral infections of the CNS with special emphasis on herpes simplex infections. J Neurol 248 469-477

Angiogenesis In Kaposis Sarcoma An Example Of Combined Action Between Angiogenic And Inflammatory Inducers

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric, highly vascularized neoplasm, probably arising from a monoclonal population of circulating progenitor cells that home to multiple visceral and cutaneous sites (97,98). KS incidence is greatly enhanced in AIDS patients, being detected in about 20 of the affected individuals, who develop a particularly aggressive form (99). Four principal features of KS include the presence of spindle cells, which represent the core of the lesion an aberrant proliferation of endothelial cells with prominent angiogenesis the presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and increased vascular permeability. The histogenesis of spindle cells is still debated, but recent data, showing the co-expression of endothelial and macrophage antigens, permit speculation that the origin of spindle cells is in a precursor that differentiates in normal tissue in the sinus-lining cells of spleen and lymph nodes (100). The molecular mechanisms regulating the differentiation of a...

Candida and Other Fungi

Acyclovir bid twice daily CMV cytomegalovirus HSV herpes simplex virus IV intravenous po orally tid three times daily. *Same dosage as for CMV. bid twice daily CMV cytomegalovirus HSV herpes simplex virus IV intravenous po orally tid three times daily. *Same dosage as for CMV.

Supplemental Reading

Arathoon E, Gotuzzo E, Noriega LM, et al. Randomized, doubleblind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus amphotericin B for treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 46 451-7. Barbari G, Barbarini G, Calderon W, et al. Fluconazole versus itraconazole for Candida esophagitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroenterol 1996 111 1169-77. Blanshard C, Benhamou Y, Dohin E, et al. Treatment of AIDS-associated gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection with fos-carnet and ganciclovir a randomized comparison. J Infect Dis 1995 172 622-8. Shafran SD, Singer J, Zarowny DP, et al. A comparision of two regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithroym-cin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin. N Engl J Med 1996 335 377-83. Wilcox CM, Alexander LN, Clark WS, Thompson SE. Fluconazole compared with endoscopy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected...

Genital Ulcer Diseases

Most sexually transmitted genital ulcers in the UK are caused by Herpes simplex virus (HPA, 2005). Treponema pallidum is another common cause. Dark-ground microscopy, serological testing for syphilis and Herpes simplex culture can be performed to aid diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also available for both organisms. Other sexually transmitted infective causes such as lymphogranuloma venereum, Haemophilus ducreyi and donovanosis should be considered, and a good travel history of both the patient and their partners is helpful. Other non-infective causes of genital ulcer disease include Behcet's disease and Crohn's disease. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Herpes simplex virus typically presents as multiple painful vesicles or pustules, which break down to form erosive ulcers. These are generally painful and may coalesce to form larger areas of painful ulceration. True primary episodes are generally more severe than subsequent episodes, and are often associated with systemic...

Human endogenous retroviruses HERV

Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) Type species of the genus Simplexvirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The genome DNA has been completely sequenced for the 17syn+ strain, and consists of about 150kb with a G+C of 67 . The DNA is infectious and has two components, L and S, each of which is bracketed by internal repeats. Primary infection is common in young children, often sub-clinical, but occasionally with acute stomatitis. The virus can pass along nerves and become latent in ganglia from whence it can be reactivated by non-specific stimuli (fever, sunlight, menstruation) to cause lesions, often around the mouth. Rarely, the virus may cause acute hepatitis, kerato-conjunctivitis or meningo-encephalitis. Vaccination has not been successful but treatment of kerato-conjunctivitis and skin lesions with locally applied acyclovir ointment is beneficial. In cases of encephalitis, neonatal herpes or disseminated infection, intravenous acyclovir is used. See Human herpesvirus 2. Synonyms...

Tissue Specific Ablation

In several movement disorders, neurodegeneration of specific neuronal types is observed, such as the dopaminer-gic neurons in Parkinson disease and striatal neurons in Huntington disease. A model that mimics neurodegeneration without regard for the genetics of the disorder can also be achieved with the transgenic approach. A widely used method of genetic ablation of specific tissues relies on the diphtheria toxin A-chain gene (DTA). The toxin gene's expression is controlled by the tissue-specific promoter it is linked to (Breitman et al. 1987 Palmiter et al. 1987). When expressed, the toxin causes cell death. A variation on this technique has been developed that allows for inducibility of the toxin. The promoter of tTA selects for the tissue type and the tet-op promoter drives DTA expression (Lee et al 1998). Another conditional ablation method uses the human inter-leukin 2 receptor that is controlled by a desired promoter. Application of the recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE40...

Approaches of Transcriptional Regulation

Several universal promoters have been utilized to attempt to maximize gene expression. The LTR, CMV, and RSV promoters were isolated from Maloney retrovirus, cytomegalovirus, and Rous sarcoma virus, respectively. These promoter elements were used because of the universal transcriptional activation over a broad host range. This universal transcription allowed for excellent but nondiscriminatory gene transcription and subsequent transgene expression. Because of the high levels of gene expression within several DNA constructs (i.e., viruses, cosmids, plasmids, etc.), these promoters are still used daily throughout the scientific community to test hypotheses which require uniform and high-level gene transcription. These were the promoters utilized in the first wave of gene therapy clinical trials, which focused on maximal gene expression and used local injection techniques to control the region of gene expression achieved. The LTR promoter was used to control herpes simplex virus...

Summary and Discussion

The implementation of a quantitative and noninvasive method capable of monitoring transgene expression in living animals repetitively would be useful toward validating the efficacy of any gene therapy strategy. In this respect, a number of investigators, including those at UCLA, are developing sensitive technologies for imaging transgene expression using positron emission tomography (PET) and optical measurements. PET is a noninvasive, tomographic imaging modality that already has clinical applications for the diagnosis and management of several diseases including cancer. Newer high-resolution animal microPET technology developed at UCLA, is allowing for the study of smaller animal systems (mice, rats, small primates) previously difficult to image with a resolution approaching 2 mm 179 . With relevance to gene therapy for cancer, the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSVl-tk) gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET reporter gene by virtue of trapping positron-emitting...

Dynamic Structures and the Fourth Dimension in CryoEM

Sometimes, the system can be slowed down, and the bottleneck created allows the desired synchronic state to be achieved. Following this strategy, the dynamics of herpes simplex virus maturation was studied after blocking the activity of a protease, since protease-deficient procapsids mature slowly in vitro (Heymann et al. 2003) (Fig. 10.4). Most dynamic structural studies by cryo-EM, however, employ biochemical interference that stalls the macromolecules in a desired step, tte ribosome is the paradigm of this type of characterization, since several natural antibiotics are known to inhibit translation, tte incorporation of specific transfer RNAs (tRNAs) to the ribosome was analyzed thanks to the blockade of the process by kirromycin (Valle et al. 2003a). tte described rearrangements of ribosome and tRNA uncovered a cascade of interrelated events that clarified the structural basis for fidelity during translation.

Transductionally Targeted Ad Vectors for Clinical Gene Therapy Applications

As discussed above, the poor efficiency of Ad-mediated gene transfer in several human gene therapy trials has been correlated with a low level of expression of CAR by the target cells. Strategies to accomplish efficient cell-specific gene transfer by Ad vectors in vivo merely by exploiting physical methods to confine vector administration to isolated body compartments have proven inadequate. For example, locally administered Ad vectors carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene have been shown to disseminate, probably as a result of leakage into the bloodstream, resulting in a high level of liver-associated toxicity 119 . Substantial hepatic toxicity related to the absence of tumor cell-specific targeting has also been demonstrated in Ad-mediated transfer of the HSV-TK gene in an ascites model of human breast cancer 120 . Thus, targeted Ad vectors capable of efficient and cell-specific CAR-independent gene transfer are required for clinical gene therapy...

Oral and oesophageal disease

Oral cavity pain or discomfort are caused by candidiasis, herpetic or aphthous ulceration, periodontal disease, and tumours. Often the diagnosis can be made by simple inspection and appropriate treatment initiated without further investigation. Systemic oral therapy of herpes simplex ulceration and candidiasis is preferred for reasons of efficacy and ease of use. Recurrence is common and if frequent, maintenance therapy may be required rather than the short treatment of each occurrence. Maintenance therapy may be more likely to induce resistance. About one third of patients develop oesophageal disease. The likelihood of candidiasis is so high that a therapeutic trial with a systemic antifungal agent is indicated before considering further investigation. If symptoms fail to respond, or recur despite adequate maintenance therapy, endoscopy is performed to exclude herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus and other causes of oesophageal ulceration including malignant lesions.

Central nervous system viral infections

Many viruses such as rabies, measles, mumps and herpes simplex may infect the nervous system and cause serious disease. Viruses may enter the nervous system along nerves and through the blood. Once in the central nervous system viruses may cause acute or slow chronic infections. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) A species in the family Herpesviridae. A natural infection of Asiatic macaque monkeys. 10 of newly caught rhesus monkeys have antibodies, and the virus is frequently present in kidney cell cultures of this animal. Reservoir species include Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. fuscata, M. arctoides, M. cyclopsis and M. radiata. Causes vesicular lesions on the tongue and lips, and sometimes of the skin. Infection of humans by monkey bites or other means leads to ascending myelitis or acute encephalitis almost all cases are fatal. Mice under 3 weeks old, day-old chicks and guinea pigs can be infected experimentally. Not all strains are...

Nearestneighbor base frequency analysis

Necrotic rhinitis virus Synonym for Bovine herpesvirus 1. neural spread Dissemination of virus infection by spreading along peripheral nerves. Plays an essential role for viruses such as rabies, herpes simplex and pseudorabies viruses, which do not generally spread by viremia. Other viruses such as polio, reovirus and mouse hepatitis may utilize both viremia and neural spread to disseminate infection.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Become resistant to azole therapy in some cases, or be due to other yeasts, such as Torulopsis glabrata, for which intravenous (IV) amphotericin B therapy is required. Therapy options for hairy leukoplakia include Acyclovir 800 mg orally 5 times per day for 2 to 3 weeks, then 1.2 to 2 g d, or Tretinoin (Retin A) 0.025 or 0.05 solution applied 2 to 3 times per day. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection responds to oral treatment with acyclovir. Discontinuation of therapy after induction therapy and the use of maintenance therapy only if there are frequent relapses is recommended. Ganciclovir is an effective therapy for CMV esophageal disease (Wilcox et al, 1991). Idiopathic esophageal ulcers not due to identifiable pathogen may respond promptly to corticosteriods, though the danger of worsening immune suppression in patients with AIDS should be kept in mind. The ulcer also may recur after steroid therapy is discontinued. Studies have shown the effectiveness of thalidomide for the...

ColAn 57389 virus CA57389V A strain of

Include man-nose-binding protein which interacts with Influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, and Human immunodeficiency virus and can activate complement to cause virus neutralization. Collectins are composed of a collagen stalk and a globular head, usually present as trimers, and form a primitive antibody-like defense mechanism which targets carbohydrate structures on infectious pathogens.

Specific Medical Therapy Table 1095

Chelation therapy Acyclovir Ganciclovir Chemotherapy Improved hemodynamics CMV cytomegalovirus FHF fulminant hepatic failure HSV herpes simplex virus NAC N acetyl cystiene TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Pregnancy-related FHF should be treated with early delivery along with administration of corticosteroids to foster maturation of the fetal lungs. Copper chelation is very effective for chronic Wilson's disease, but rarely effective in fulminant Wilson's in which liver transplantation is usually the only option. Other potentially beneficial but unproven therapies include high dose corticosteroids for fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, and lamivudine (and or adefovir), acyclovir, or ganciclovir for FHF secondary to HBV, HSV, or CMV infection, respectively. In all of these situations, specific therapy should not delay evaluation and listing for transplant in suitable candidates.

Selectable Markers and Gene Amplification in Animal Cells

The inosinate cycle for the salvage of purine bases and the production of inosine monophosphate) and therefore unable to grow in medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine (HAT, which blocks de novo inosine monophosphate production (Lester etal., 1980)) were transfected with total genomic DNA from a wild-type cell line. Very rarely, cells could be isolated that were able to grow in this medium, indicating that they had acquired the ability to make HPRT from the wild-type cells (Szybalska and Szybalski, 1962). Similarly, mouse cells deficient in the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK, which is part of the nucleotide biosynthesis salvage pathway) are unable to grow on HAT medium, but can be transfected with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) Tk gene to allow growth on this medium (Wigler etal., 1977). A number of other such metabolic markers have also been used to monitor the transfec-tion process, but they all suffer from the requirement of a mutant cell line in order to detect...

Inducible Transgenic Systems

Widespread alteration in a gene's expression pattern from the beginning of development may disrupt normal growth to a severity that produces unhealthy animals, which could complicate analyses or even render the animals of no use. Also, compensatory mechanisms may occur during development that mask the effects of the transgene. In these cases, control over the time of transgene expression is necessary. Several systems have been developed to meet that need. The Tet system is the most widely used. Two variations of this system have been devised that differ in whether or not the gene is expressed constitutively and when exposed to an exogenous compound. The original strategy is the Tet-off system (Figure 2). In this system, an additional mouse line is produced to express tetracycline-controlled trans-activator (tTA) in the tissue(s) of interest. tTA is a fusion protein containing a tet repressor from E. coli transposon Tn 10 and the activating domain of virion protein 16 of herpes simplex...

PCR See polymerase chain reaction

Penciclovir A drug related to acyclovir which is selectively phosphorylated by the HSV thymidine kinase and inhibits replication of herpesviruses such as VZV and CMV as well as HSV. It is licensed as a cream for use against oral herpes. Because it was not effective orally, the 6-deoxydiacetyl ester derivative famciclovir was developed as an orally delivered prodrug of penciclovir and is now licensed for treatment, especially of herpes zoster infections in immunosup-pressed patients. It is also effective against hepatitis B.

Viral Infections In Aging Humans

Viral infection begins with attachment of virions to host cells. Specific attachment that leads to virion penetration generally depends upon complementary interaction between viral protein (counter-receptor or anti-receptor) and specific receptors on host cells. Viruses may display a single species of protein counter-receptor or multiple species of counter-receptors in the case of some complex viruses such as herpes simplex. Whether or not a host cell is susceptible to a given virus depends upon the cell having receptors. Cells lacking receptors are not susceptible. If a host cell supports the complete reproduction of a given virus, it is termed permissive. Some host cells can be shown to be permissive but not susceptible because they lack the appropriate receptors. Herpes simplex Proteoglycans Oral and genital epithelium

Cytomegalic inclusion disease CID

Diseases caused by cytomegalovirus infection are marked by characteristic large refractile inclusion bodies (known as 'owl eye' inclusions).These are found in patients suffering from classical congenital CMV infection, and also in AIDS patients suffering from CMV, a frequent opportunistic infection. Cytomegalovirus One of three genera in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae, containing three species, Human herpesvirus 5 (human cytomegalovirus), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8. Tentative species in the genus are aotine herpesvirus 1 and aotine her-pesvirus 3. The members of the genus are grouped on the basis of the nucleotide sequence similarity of their genome DNAs. cytomegalovirus group Synonym for Betaherpesvirinae.

Gibbon ape type C oncovirus See Gibbon ape leukemia virus

Glandular fever virus Synonym for Human herpesvirus 4. gloves and socks syndrome A petechial or papular-purpuric rash on the hands and feet of children and adults. Following infection there is acute onset of fever, exanthem, edema and erythema of the hands and feet that has been associated with parvovirus B19 infection syndrome has also been described in relation to cytomegalovirus infection. glycyrrhizic acid An antiviral agent derived from the roots of the liquorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra. The ammonium salt completely inhibited growth and CPE of vaccinia, Human herpesvirus 1, Newcastle disease and Vesicular stomatitis viruses when grown in cultures of HEp-2 cells. There was no effect on poliovirus type 1. In addition to the inhibitory action, there is irreversible inactivation of Human her-pesvirus 1, although not of the other viruses tested. The mode of action of gly-cyrrhizic acid is not understood, but it is not thought to be mediated through damage to host cells.

Why should I take drugs that have side effects

Infection Infections complicating the use of steroids include an increased risk of infection of all types, including viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic disease. Although viral infections are usually mentioned as a risk with steroid administration, including a risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), these infections are relatively uncommon. Shingles (herpes zoster) and flares of genital herpes are probably the most common viral infections seen. skin infection caused by the herpes zoster virus. Genital herpes a contagious viral infection primarily affecting the genitals of men and women caused by the herpes simplex-2 virus (HSV-2).

Rodent wild in Turkmenia poxvirus A

The trunk and to a lesser extent on the face and extremities. Rarely persists more than 24 h. Caused by Human herpesvirus 6 in the genus Roseolovirus. Roseolovirus A genus in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Viruses are isolated from lymphocytes and have a unique DNA structure. There are two species in the genus, Human herpesvirus 6 which causes roseola infantum (also called exanthem subitum or sixth disease), and Human herpesvirus 7 which has not so far been clearly associated with a human disease. There are two variants of HHV6, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, and only HHV6-B has been clearly associated with roseola infantum.

Trinidad donkey virus A strain of

Trisodium phosphonoformate An antiviral agent. A pyrophosphate analog that is a non-competitive inhibitor of the viral DNA polymerase. Inhibits both herpesviruses and Hepatitis B virus. Used to treat cytomegalovirus infections of the eye effective against acyclovir-resistant viruses. Synonym foscarnet. tupaiid herpesvirus 1 (TuHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Originally isolated from a spontaneously degenerating lung tissue culture from an apparently normal tree shrew, Tupaia glis. Appears to be a common and silent infection of tree shrews as it can often be isolated from mouth swabs and from cell cultures of various organs. Replicates in a tree shrew fibroblast cell line. Another strain was isolated from a malignant lymphosarcoma in an 8-year-old tree shrew, a third from a Hodgkin's sarcoma in a 9-year-old tree shrew, and four others from moribund animals aged 4-11 years. They are probably all strains of the original virus isolate, as they share close DNA...

Polymerase chain reaction PCR

Pongine herpesvirus 1 (PoHV-1) A species in the genus Lymphocryptovirus, isolated from lymphoid cell lines of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. A primate B-lymphotropic herpesvirus sharing 40 well-conserved DNA sequence relatedness with Epstein-Barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) and herpesvirus papio (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 12). All three viruses cross-react antigenically. Cultivation restricted to B cell lymphocytes. No evidence of clinical disease in chimpanzees. Synonyms chimpanzee agent chimpanzee herpesvirus 1 pan herpesvirus. Pongine herpesvirus 2 (PoHV-2) A species in the genus Lymphocryptovirus, isolated from a cell line established from a leukemic orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus. Synonym orangutan herpesvirus. Pongine herpesvirus 3 (PoHV-3) A species in the genus Lymphocryptovirus. A virus associated with a B lymphoid cell line established from a gorilla, Gorilla gorilla. Cross-reacted in DNA hybridization studies to 30-40 with EBV DNA. Transformed lymphocytes from gibbon apes,...

Tanjong Rabok virus TRV A strain of

Tegument In the Herpesviridae it is the structure located between the capsid and the envelope. lt has been called an 'inner membrane' although it does not have the trilaminar unit structure characteristic of true membranes. teratogenesis Two human viruses, Rubella virus and Human herpesvirus 5, may cause severe damage to the fetus. Three species of pestivirus cause economically important teratogenesis in domestic animals bovine virus diarrhea virus, Border disease virus and hog cholera virus. A severe disease of the fetus called Smedi syndrome is caused by porcine enterovirus.

Cycloheximide 3[235dimethyl2oxocyclohexyl2hydroxyethylglutarimide A

Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from epithelioma of carp. Produces specific CPE in cell cultures of a warm water aquarium fish, Lebistes retic-ulatus. Synonyms carppox herpesvirus epithelioma of carp virus epithelioma papillosum of carp virus fishpox virus. cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Synonyms goldfish herpesvirus hemato-poietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish. cytarabine hydrochloride (ara C) 1-beta,-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine hydrochlo-ride An antiviral and antileukemic agent which inhibits DNA synthesis. In the body the drug is converted to araCTP, when it is able to inhibit both DNA poly-merase and nucleoside reductase. Its antiviral spectrum resembles that of idoxuridine. Rapidly inactivated in vivo. Was used with some success in the treatment of herpes keratitis and severe generalized herpes infection, but now replaced by acyclovir as the drug of choice.

Vegf Isoforms And Expression

VEGF165, VEGF189, and VEGF206 levels are increased in several human malignancies including breast,26 lung,27 brain,28 pancreatic,29 ovarian,30 kidney, and bladder carcinomas.31 Less frequently expressed are the VEGF-A spliced forms VEGF145, VEGF183, VEGF162, and VEGF165b.32 VEGF145, for example, shows similar heparin affinity as VEGF165, and is expressed by both human multiple myeloma (MM) cells33 and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV or HHV-8)-associated primary effusion lymphomas (PELs).34 Importantly, ECM-bound VEGF145 remains an active endothelial cell growth factor.35

Common cold virus See human rhinoviruses

Congenital infection Infection occurring before birth. May follow a number of viral infections and is sometimes lethal. May produce fetal abnormalities, e.g. Rubella virus and Human herpesvirus 5. Some viruses affect particular organs depending on the stage of fetal development at which infection occurs, while others which are non-cytocidal may infect every cell in the embryo and persist throughout adult life, e.g. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice.

General physical examination

Additionally, unless meningitis can be excluded by the clear identification of another cause for coma, it should be assumed present as the consequence of missed diagnosis is catastrophic and the risk of unnecessary treatment with antibiotics small. Acyclovir should also be considered as herpes encephalitis has a worse prognosis when treatment is seriously delayed. Senior advice should be sought. Lumbar puncture should not be performed in a child in coma. It can be performed some days later when the child's condition allows, to confirm or refute the diagnosis of meningitis encephalitis if antibiotic treatment acyclovir has been started (see page 134).

Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain TA

Reye's syndrome A neurological and metabolic disease of children and adolescents first described in Australia in 1963. Characterized by encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the liver. The syndrome has been observed to follow infections with Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, parainfluenza virus, human adenovirus, Human herpesvirus 3 and Human respiratory syncytial virus. An acute encephalopathy with fatty degeneration of the viscera with a fatality rate of about 20 . Cause is uncertain but

Erythema infectiosum fifth disease A

Esocid herpesvirus 1 (EsHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae, Synonyms northern pike herpesvirus pike epidermal proliferative herpesvirus. European ground squirrel cytomegalovirus Synonym for sciurid herpes-virus 1. European hedgehog herpesvirus Synonym for erinaceid herpesvirus 1.

Structural features of nucleosides as antiviral agents

Some viruses, such as herpes viruses, encode their own nucleoside-phosphorylat-ing enzymes, which offers the potential for a therapeutic target.6 Nucleosides, which are preferably phosphorylated by viral enzymes rather than by the cellular homologue, are only activated in infected cells and can have high selectivity against these viruses. This is, for example, the main factor in the success of acyclovir (ACV). However, other viruses, such as HIV and HBV, do not encode nucleoside kinases. In order to be active against these viruses, nucleoside analogs have to be phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Thus, the selectivity between antiviral activity and cellular toxicity depends on the substrate specificity of the NTPs for viral and host polymerases, and often the therapeutic exploitation of active nucleosides is compromised by the toxicity resulting from inhibition of the host enzymes or incorporation in the host nucleic acids. In general, enzymes act on one enantiomer of a chiral...

Subacute myeloopticoneuropathy virus

(SMON) A herpesvirus isolated from the feces and CSF of patients with subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy. Seen mainly in Japan, the disease is characterized by sensory disturbance, especially of the lower part of the legs, abdominal symptoms, decreased muscle strength and bilateral impairment of visual acuity. There are no changes in the blood or CSF. There is degeneration of posterior and lateral tracts of the spinal cord. The virus was isolated in BAT-6 cells and causes a thinning of the cell sheet. On injection into newborn C57Bl 6 mice it is reported to cause paralysis of the hind legs. It is claimed that the virus can be derived on passage of avian infectious laryngotra-cheitis virus on the CAM or in newborn C57BL 6 mice. It is antigenically related to this virus but is said to differ from it in being non-pathogenic for fowls, less unstable at low pH and pathogenic for C57BL 6 mice. The role of the virus in subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy has submaxillary virus See...

Blymphotropic Polyomavirus LpyV A

Boa herpesvirus An unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae. Synonym for boid herpesvirus 1. bobwhite quail herpesvirus Synonym for perdicid herpesvirus 1. boid herpesvirus 1 (BoiHV-1) An unas-signed member of the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a young boa constrictor.

Rainbow trout virus RTV A strain of

Rangifer tarandus herpesvirus Synonym for Cervid herpesvirus 2. ranid herpesvirus 1 (RaHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. A natural infection of Rana pipiens in north, central and north-eastern parts of the USA and adjacent southern Canada. Causes renal carcinoma in these frogs, which may affect up to 90 of the population. The disease is seasonal, and frogs excrete virus in urine when they are kept at 4 C but not if kept at 25 C. The virus also induces tumors experimentally in the kidneys of Rana pipiens, R. clamitans and R. palustris. The DNA genome is small for a herpesvirus (mol. wt. 66 x 106 by contour length measurement), with a G+C content of 45 . The virus has not been grown in cell cultures. Synonym Lucke frog herpesvirus. Granoff A (1983) In The Herpesviruses, vol. 2, edited by B Roizman. New York Plenum Press, p. 367 ranid herpesvirus 2 (RaHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from the urine of Lucke tumor-bearing frogs, but...

Marker rescue See reactivation

Marmodid herpesvirus 1 (MarHV-1) A tentative species in the genus Rhadinovirus, isolated from woodchuck hepatocytes cultured in vitro. The genome is 160 kb in length. Replicates in a variety of monkey, feline and hamster cells, and also in WCH-17, a woodchuck hepatoma cell line. Antibodies to the virus have been found in woodchuck sera. Synonyms woodchuck herpesvirus her-pesvirus marmota. marmoset cytomegalovirus Synonym for callitrichine herpesvirus 2.

Great Saltee Island virus GSIV A

Green iguana herpesvirus Synonym for iguanid herpesvirus 1. green lizard herpesvirus Synonym for lac-ertid herpesvirus 1. green sea turtle herpesvirus Synonym for chelonid herpesvirus 1. green turtle herpesvirus (GTHV) green turtle herpesvirus (GTHV) A virus associated with an emerging neoplastic disease of turtles in Florida and Hawaii. Fibropapillomatosis is a debilitating, frequently fatal disease of marine green turtles, Chelonia mydas, characterized by the presence of epithelial fibropapillomas and internal fibromas containing her-pesvirus-like DNA sequences. Although a virus has not so far been isolated, DNA sequence analysis of fibropapilloma tissue suggests that there may be at least three closely related herpesviruses associated with the disease, depending on the species and geographical location. In addition to green turtles, loggerhead turtles and olive ridley turtles may also be infected. When cell-free filtrates of cultured cells derived from the fibropapilloma tissue...

UdR See fluorodeoxyuridine

Fusion of cells The formation of multi-nucleate giant cells known as poly-karyocytes or syncytia. Can be caused by a variety of agents including some viruses, notably Paramyxoviridae. There are two types of virus-induced fusion. (1) Fusion from without. Not dependent on virus replication or on the synthesis of new proteins. Occurs not more than 1-3 h after exposure to high multiplicities of most of the large enveloped RNA viruses or certain DNA viruses such as Human herpesviruses 1 and 2 and Vaccinia virus, even when they have been inactivated by UV light or P-propiolactone. May also be caused by viral hemolysin, since treatment which will destroy this enzyme activity without affecting viral infectivity will also prevent the cell-fusing action. (2) Fusion from within. Begins several hours after infection and depends on synthesis of viral proteins, especially the F protein of paramyx-oviruses. Production of new infectious virus is not necessary. Often most marked after infection at low...

CHP 3 and 4 WW cells CCC 132 and

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) A severely disabling fatigue with self-reported impairments in concentration and short-term memory, sleep disturbances and musculoskeletal pain. Occurs worldwide. A number of infectious agents have been proposed as etiologic agents of CFS, including Human herpesviruses 4 (EBV), 5 (CMV) and 6 (HHV6) enteroviruses retroviruses and Borrelia burgdorferi. None has proved to be a unique causative agent, but it remains possible that such infections act as a trigger for the syndrome. Synonyms post-viral fatigue syndrome myalgic encephalitis (ME).

Ovine encephalomyelitis virus Synonym for loupingill virus

Ovine herpesvirus 1 (OvHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Found during studies on sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (jaagsiekte) but not the cause of that disease. Synonym sheep pulmonary adenomato-sis-associated herpesvirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) An unas-signed species in the genus Rhadinovirus. Causes sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever of cattle. The virus has not been grown in cell culture. Synonyms sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever of cattle virus herpesvirus ovis.

Quail adenovirus See fowl adenovirus

Subunits forming the icosahedral capsid should be capable of assembling into both hexamers and pentamers. The insertion of 12 pentamers produces curvature in the sheet of hexamers where they are inserted, resulting in a closed icosahedral shell that is not strictly equivalent, but forms a more stable structure. Thus icosahedral viruses have a capsid composed of 12 pentamers and a variable number of hexamers, e.g. herpesviruses have 150 hexamers and 12 pentamers, making up the capsid adenoviruses have 240 hexamers and 12 pentamers. See icosahedral symmetry.

Stomatitispneumoenteritis complex virus

Strigid herpesvirus 1 (StHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from owls of several species in which it may cause hepatosplenitis and paralysis. Disease can be produced experimentally in owls but not other birds. Replicates on the CAM and in the allantois. Synonym owl hepatosplenitis herpesvirus.

DNA exonuclease See deoxyribonuclease exonuclease

Triphosphates and a primer with a free 3'-hydroxyl group. The primer can be an uncompleted DNA strand, but is more usually a short RNA strand. Synthesis of at least one strand is discontinuous and yields a series of Okazaki fragments. Three types of DNA polymerase have been described in prokaryotes. DNA polymerase I (Kornberg enzyme) has a 5'-3' exonucle-ase activity as well as polymerase activity and is mainly involved in repair synthesis of DNA. DNA polymerase II has a 3'-5' nuclease activity but lacks the 5'-3' nucle-ase activity. DNA polymerase III has both 5'-3' and 3'-5' exonuclease activities and appears to be the true DNA replicating enzyme in Escherichia coli the role of DNA polymerase II is uncertain. In eukaryotic cells, four distinct species of DNA poly-merase have been described. (1) DNA polymerase alpha has a high molecular weight and contains associated DNA primase activity it is the major enzyme involved in DNA replication. (2) DNA polymerase beta is a low molecular...

Or 4Membered ring nucleosides

The active enantiomer of carbocyclic OXT-G (141, lobucavir, LBV, Figure 56) displays an impressive broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a wide variety of herpesviruses and HBV as well as HIV.247 The mechanism of action of LBV against HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV consists in the inhibition of the viral polymerases after phosphorylation by the virally encoded TK (Figure 57).247 However, HCMV, HBV and HIV do not encode enzymes which are capable of mediating LBV phosphorylation. It is known that HCMV has homologs of a herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase (UL97 gene), which mediates the phosphorylation of ganciclovir (GCV). In the case of VZV, both the herpesvirus TK and protein kinase may independently enable the phosphorylation of LBV. Furthermore, LBV is phosphorylated to its triphosphate intracellularly in both HCMV-infected and uninfected cells, with phosphorylated metabolites levels 2- to 30-fold higher in infected cells. These studies247 suggest that LBVTP can halt HCMV DNA replication...

Cranial nerves and painful conditions a checklist

Metastases nasopharyngeal, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, multiple myeloma Inflammatory Fungal mucormycosis mucocele, periostitis, sinusitis Viral herpes zoster, spirchochetal Bacterial mycobacterial Others eosinophilic granuloma, sarcoid, Tolosa Hunt syndrome, Wegener's

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus

Post-transcriptional modification Alterations in the structure of RNA transcripts prior to utilization as mRNA. These may include splicing, capping with a blocked methylated structure at the 5' end, addition of poly A at the 3' end, or methylation of certain bases internally in the RNA, particularly adenylic and cytidylic acids. These modifications all occur in most species of eukaryotic cell mRNA, and are apparently accomplished by enzymes in the cell nucleus. Viral RNA transcripts synthesized within the cell nucleus (e.g. Orthomyxoviridae, Retroviridae, Papovaviridae, Adenoviridae and Herpesviridae) may be modified by these cell enzymes. Viruses replicating wholly in the cytoplasm (e.g. Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Picorna-viridae, Togaviridae and Poxviridae) carry similar enzymes in the virion or induce their synthesis in infected cells.