Human Brain Ebooks Catalog

Flash Brain Anatomy

This course gives you access to a full online course and software to learn more about the brain than you ever thought possible in a short amount of time. This software contains detailed, 3D brain models, animations to display concepts, hundreds of educational courses, a neuroanatomy atlas, and compatibility with most web browsers. You will also have access to a full online suite of tutors. Neuroanatomy is one of the hardest parts of anatomy to learn, and learning the brain will really be a lot easier if you had a detailed model to base your knowledge off. This software makes the brain as simple as possible, while also giving you a way to learn it throughly. This model simplifies a very complex subject that most people struggle with Don't be one of the people that doesn't know what to do with the brain model! This course is designed to teach you everything about the brain while keeping the lessons manageable and learning at your own pace.

Flash Brain Anatomy Summary


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Histological neuroanatomy

This section presents the detailed neuroanatomy that is needed for localization of lesions in the brainstem. A series of illustrations is presented through the brainstem to enable the learner to integrate the nuclei, both cranial nerve and other important nuclei, and the tracts passing through that region. Accompanying these schematics are photographs of the brainstem from the human brain at the same levels. The same approach is used for the spinal cord, a common site for clinical disease and traumatic injuries.

Only a Glimpse The Complexity of the Human Brain

This chapter provides just a tiny sample of the complexity of the variegated structures and chemical functions that flexibly, often creatively, manage the ongoing functions of the human brain. The massive scope of the brain's ability to make connections within itself boggles the mind. Paul The amazing capacities of the human brain to operate with such wide variability are all the more incredible when one considers that no two brains are exactly alike. Gerald Edelman and Giulio Tononi (2000) have emphasized how each brain is much more flexible in its capacities, and more individualized than the most advanced computer ever made.

Has the human brain stopped evolving

A written culture in a large, settled, differentiated, civilised community placed greater demands on learning and memory than life in a small, undifferentiated, preliterate nomadic tribe. Today, people from nomadic tribes can adjust to modern city life within a generation or two, showing that their brains have all the requisite capacity. The simplest inference is that civilised culture has evolved during the past 5000 years without any further significant changes in the human brain. However, there is probably no one alive today whose ancestors have, without exception, avoided all significant contact with civilisation. Perhaps many Homo sapiens 10,000 years ago could not have coped with the learning and memory demands of even rudimentary civilisation, let alone the modern city but natural selection has eliminated them. Therefore, it is possible that the progress of H. sapiens towards civilisation has entailed continuing expansion of the brain. error and less than the standard deviation...

Distinctive features of human brain function

Human brains are bigger relative to body size, and much more complicated in terms of numbers of synaptic connections, than the brains of other mammals. However, being bigger and more multiply connected does not mean that they are better at everything than the brains of other species. For example, dogs process olfactory information far more efficiently and elaborately than humans. Salient examples of human capabilities are hand control, facial recognition and language we discussed hand control and its evolutionary significance earlier. The human brain is apparently hard-wired to attend and respond to the sight of human faces. As a result, it is able to learn very early in life to respond to particular faces, especially those of adult carers. The memories of particular faces seem to be stored towards the front of the brain in the temporal lobes. However, actual recognition of a face within the field of vision involves a region called the fusiform gyrus, where the occipital and temporal...

Six isoforms of tau in adult human brain

In the 1988 paper, Goedert et al. also mentioned that they had identified a second form of tau, with sequence variation in the first repeat, and suggested that tau mRNA was undergoing alternative splicing. This second form was identical to the first, with the exception of an additional insert of 31 amino acids in the repeat region. Upon sequencing of genomic clones, the extra repeat was found to be encoded by a separate exon (now known as exon 10), flanked by consensus splice acceptor and donor sequences. This work uncovered the existence of at least two types of tau isoforms in human brain, those with three repeats and those with four repeats (Goedert et al. 1989a). Sequencing of a large number of cDNA clones revealed the existence of additional tau isoforms with 29 and 58 amino acid inserts in the amino-terminal region, in combinations with both three and four repeats. With the isoforms described previously, this gave a total of six human brain tau isoforms ranging from 352 to 441...

Fact Add looks very much like a willpower problem but it isnt Its essentially a chemical problem in the management

Most individuals who suffer chronically from an impaired ability to pay attention are able to focus their attention very well on activities that interest them. So why can't they pay attention during other activities that they recognize as important To answer this riddle, we have to look more carefully at the many aspects of attention, recognizing that processes of attention in the human brain are more complex and subtle than we might have imagined. One way to understand the complexity of attention is to listen carefully to patients with ADHD as they describe their struggles with inattention. Meet a patient of mine, a teenaged hockey player whom I'll call Larry

The Biological Significance of CSD

For neurosurgeons studying and caring for acute brain injury, the only certainties are that PIDs, when identified, should be controlled, and that there is more to be learned about the effects of CSD on the human brain before we can reach a view on whether to attempt to control it.

Serotoninergic Pathways

Figure 4.10 Representation of the primary serotonin-containing tracts in the human brain. Arising from the raphe nuclei these cells project to all cortical gray matter, with additional tracts to the basal ganglia and the cerebellum Figure 4.10 Representation of the primary serotonin-containing tracts in the human brain. Arising from the raphe nuclei these cells project to all cortical gray matter, with additional tracts to the basal ganglia and the cerebellum

Dispersed filaments are made of fulllength hyperphosphorylated tau protein

Schematic representation of the human tau gene and the six tau isoforms (352 to 441 amino acids) that are produced in brain through alternative mRNA splicing. The human tau gene consists of 16exons (E) and extends over approximately 130 kb. E0, which is part of the promoter, and E14 are non-coding (in white). Alternative splicing of E2 (in red), E3 (in green) and E10 (in yellow) gives rise to the six tau isoforms. The constitutively spliced exons (E1, E4, E5, E7, E9, E11, E12, E13) are indicated in blue. E6 and E8 (in violet) are not transcribed in human brain. E4a (in orange) is only expressed in the peripheral nervous system, where its presence gives rise to the tau isoform known as big tau. Black bars indicate the microtubule-binding repeats, with three isoforms having three repeats each and three isoforms having four repeats each. The exons and introns are not drawn to scale colleagues and by Ihara and collaborators had already suggested that tau protein is...

Neurons Glia and Related Cells

Human brain astrocyte secreted AM at a rate of 1.17 fmol 105 cells h, which was augmented more than 20 fold with IFN-y, TNF-a and IL-lp (Takahashi, 2000a). C6 glioma cell secreted AM at a rate of 0.93 fmol 105 cells h, and its regulation profile of AM secretion was rather different (Table 6). TGF-p dexamethasone, T3 and forskolin increased AM secretion, while TNF-a and IL-lp suppressed it. AM secretion rate from glioblastoma T98G cell was high (8.56 fmol 105 cells h), which was elevated with IFN-y and IL-ljJ but not with TNF-

Pet Studies Of Neurotransmitter Activity In Mild Ad

Few PET studies have so far been performed regarding transmitter and receptor dysfunction in AD. The cholinergic hypothesis has so far rendered PET ligands for nicotinic receptors, muscarinic receptors (Nordberg et al., 1995a, 1997, 1998), acetylcholinesterase activity (Iyo et al., 1997 Kuhl et al., 1999), and cholinergic terminal density (Kuhl et al., 1996). Detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and cholinergic terminal density by PET has also shown losses in activity in AD patients more pronounced than the impairment seen in glucose metabolism (Kuhl et al., 1996, 1999). It has been well established from autopsy brain studies that the neuronal nicotinic receptors are significantly impaired in AD (Paterson and Nordberg, 2000). It might therefore be useful to image the nicotinic receptors non-invasively in patients with MCI and mild AD. So far (S)(-)nicotine radiolabeled with nC has been used to target nicotinic receptors in vivo in human brain. A significant correlation has been...

Relationship between Tau pathology and A0PP dysmetabolism

In fact these observations directly lead to other therapeutic strategies concentrated around the concept of a loss of function of ApPP stimulating tau pathology, in good agreement with other teams who contend that Ap maybe a planet, but ApPP is central (Neve and Robakis 1998 Neve 2001 Lee et al. 2004c). From our study on tau and Ap in the human brain, the stimulation of the non-amyloidogenic pathway seems to be the more powerful and less risky way to decrease Ap production and simultaneously to stimulate the production of sAPPalpha, a neurotrophic factor, and AICD, a possible transcription factor, which should delay tau pathology (Delacourte 2006).

Two Interconnected Halves

In the past, the left hemisphere of the human brain was recognized as dealing primarily with language data, while the right hemisphere was seen as dealing primarily with visual and spatial operations. A different picture emerges from more recent studies. Robert Ornstein (1997) has reviewed research suggesting that the right hemisphere tends to deal more with getting the big picture, the wider range of possible meanings, whereas the left hemisphere is better suited for dealing with more detailed and focused sequential information. In his view, these two hemispheres work together, with the right side more suited to recognizing the contextual forest while the left deals more with details of particular trees. Information flow in the brain thus involves not only circuits that pull together information from local and regional centers across modalities of perception, but also circuits that criss-cross the hemispheres to sort out and integrate constantly shifting details, sequences, and...

Structural and Functional Imaging

Through the 1970s researchers had access to the living human brain mostly through the study of blood, urine, and spinal fluid. Only electroencephalograph (EEG) methods and occasional probing during brain surgery provided direct data on human brain functioning. Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) scans and early Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed brain structures in considerable detail (see Fig. 1) but provided no functional information. That is to say, CAT and MRI scans may show tumors, strokes, and other forms of structural brain damage but they do not show brain activity during learning, memory, language processing, emotion, sleep, and other brain states. In fact, structural imaging may show the brain in fine anatomic detail but whether the patient is alive or dead is not apparent in the images. Functional brain imaging is designed to reveal regional brain activity while the person is engaged in a psychological task chosen to maintain the brain in a specific mode during the imaging...

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Neuroimaging techniques, such as single photon emission tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and fMRI, provide a means of mapping regional neuronal activity in vivo in the intact human brain. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI uses echo-planar imaging (EPI) to detect changes in the oxygenation state of the blood (8). Recent studies of the monkey brain combined BOLD-sensitive fMRI with electrophysiological measurements to demonstrate that the BOLD signal primarily measures the input and processing of neuronal information within a brain region (2). Since the BOLD signal is an intrinsic signal, BOLD-sensitive fMRI does not require the injection of a contrast agent. Compared to PET and SPECT, BOLD-sensitive fMRI does not involve exposure to radiation, is widely available, and offers a higher spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, event-related fMRI protocols allow studies to investigate changes in the BOLD signal related to a single movement, whereas SPECT and...

GFV1 virus See goldfish virus

Species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. Seen by electron microscopy in a disseminated T-lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma in a captive gibbon ape, Hylobates lar. The tumor cells in culture grew as free-floating cells, releasing virus particles, which are non-transforming in vitro but in gibbons induce leukemia. Antigenically related to the simian sarcoma virus. Several strains have been isolated and their origins are indicated by suffixes, thus -H for Hall's Island near Bermuda -SF for San Francisco -Br for brain extract from gibbons injected with extract of human brain from kuru patients and -SEATO for Seato Laboratory, Bangkok. All are closely related by protein serology and nucleic acid homology. The GALVs as a group are related to murine leukemia viruses, especially the endogenous virus of the Asian mouse, Mus caroli. No GALV isolates have been made from wild gibbon apes.

Establishment of the Department of Neurobiology

Several years after returning from my postdoctoral studies in St. Louis, David Ben-Gurion, the first Prime Minister of the State of Israel, visited the Weizmann Institute of Science. He inquired about the nature of my scientific work and listened intently to my explanations of the genetic code. I have to confess, he remarked, that if I could have started life all over again I would have dedicated myself to research in biology He then asked young man, why not study the human brain After all, the superiority of all humans are their minds.,, With this remark, he left my laboratory. A recollection of our conversation came back to me in 1968, when I proposed to the management of the Weizmann Institute that they should initiate research in neurobiology and open a department devoted to this field. My interest in neuroscience developed slowly, coinciding with the advances made in molecular biology and genetics. It became obvious that the time was ripe to apply similar interdisciplinary...

In the Prefrontal Cortex Working Memory Circuits

The prefrontal cortex is a relatively small component of the human brain it takes up slightly less than one-third of the brain's total volume. This central management center is connected directly with every functional unit of the brain, those that Specific cells that execute the functions of working memory have been identified in the living brain. For example, the late Patricia Goldman-Rakic (1987) found specific cells in the prefrontal cortex for spatial working memory the ability to remember where something occurs in a tiny region of the lateral prefrontal cortex. Her studies were done with monkeys, animals whose brains are organized almost identically to the human brain.

Plasticity of brain function

Like most terminally differentiated cells, mature neurones cannot divide. In most vertebrate brains, neurones are not replaced when they die, so their number in the brain decreases with advancing age. After their late teens, humans lose brain neurones at the rate of about a million a day. This sounds alarming, but the human brain contains something like a million million neurones altogether. Nevertheless, losses can accumulate significantly over a long life-time. If the brain had less plasticity, if new circuits were less capable of compensating for damage, then senile dementia might develop much earlier.

Neuronal Cyclooxygenase2 A Potential Target For Nsaids In The Brain

Studies of post-mortem AD, as well as large number of epidemiological and interventional studies point to an important role of COX-2 in the pathophysiology of AD. In particular, the surprising discovery that, in the human brain, COX-2 is expressed primarily in neurons (see below) may have important implications for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (Ho et al., 1999, 2001 in press). Moreover, the tremendous resources being devoted by industry and academia to the testing of antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of AD attests to the growing consensus in favor of the inflammatory hypothesis of the disease (Aisen, 1997).

Identification and validation of BACE1 as psecretase

Overexpressing APP would lead to increased Ap production 2) we chose tissue culture cells (and not post-mortem brain) as a source of cDNA and 3) we insisted on the most rigorous validation cascade for any potential candidate to avoid pursuit of irrelevant enzymes, an issue that had plagued the field for many years. Our assay system was designed to identify p- and y-secretase activities, and we were well aware of the intrinsic limitations of our approach in terms of assay sensitivity and in terms of being unable to identify multi-component enzymes (since this would require co-transfection of all the components). But at the time we speculated that both p- and y-secretase would turn out to be membrane-bound single-chain proteins. Despite considerable efforts, we failed to identify y-secretase, which can now be explained by its multi-component structure. However, we picked up a signal by a novel transmembrane protease, BACE1, which we ultimately identified and validated as p-secretase....

Bulk isolation and polypeptide composition of neurofibrillary tanglespaired helical filaments

To confirm that EFP, which we renamed PHF protein (PHFP), was a protein subunit of PHF, we raised rabbit antibodies to this protein, purified by cutting out the protein band from Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels. The antiserum to PHFP stained neurofibrillary tangles and dystrophic neuritis of neuritic (senile) plaques in AD brain and produced a reaction line of identity with a brain microtubule-associated protein (MAP) by Ouchterlony double diffusion test (Grundke-Iqbal et al. 1979a,b). Employing the Ouchterlony double diffusion test, we demonstrated that PHFP reacted with a brain microtubule-associated protein (MAP) and not with tubulin or high-molecular weight (HMW) MAPs (Grundke-Iqbal et al. 1979b). We also raised an antiserum to human brain microtubules that reacted with PHFP and labeled neurofibrillary tangles in AD brain (Grundke-Iqbal etal. 1979a). Onthebasis ofthese findings, we were confidentthat we had the PHFP and that it was a MAP other than the HMW MAPs, which...

Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation

Despite the initial excitement over the discovery of htt aggregates in the brains of HD patients and transgenic mouse models of HD, the role of macromolecular aggregates in the pathogenesis of disease remains controversial. For example, mutant huntingtin aggregates are generally not very frequent in the most-affected regions of the human brain, i.e., medium spiny neurons in the striatum (Gutekunst et al. 1999). As discussed below, we and others have observed that neurons in brains of some of the transgenic mouse models can carry aggregates throughout their lifespans without obvious toxicity or degeneration. In mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1), altering mutant ataxin 1 in a manner that diminishes the formation of large inclusion structures does not abolish toxicity (Klement et al. 1998). Conversely, deleting E6-AP ubiquitin ligase in mice expressing mutant ataxin 1 decreases aggregate formation while, at the same time, increasing toxicity (Cummings et al. 1999). Thus,...

Is There an Optimal Time or Drug Dose for Normalization

Radiation therapy by increasing the concentration of reactive oxygen species created by the radiation. During the normalization window, but not before or after it, VEGFR-2 blockade was found to increase pericyte coverage of vessels in a human brain tumor grown in mice. Vessel normalization was accompanied by upregulation of angiopoietin-1 and activation of MMPs. The prevailing hypothesis is that VEGF blockade passively prunes nascent vessels that are not covered with pericytes. In contrast, this study found that pericyte coverage increased before vascular pruning. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of vessel normalization may suggest new strategies for extending the normalization window to provide ample time for cytotoxic therapy. The dose of AAs also determines the efficacy of combination therapy. Although it is tempting to increase the dose of AAs or to use a more potent angiogenic blocker, as one would for chemotherapeutic agents, doing so might lead to normal...

Extending the cellbrain analogy

Some parts of the brain are necessary for overseeing basic physiological functions, e.g. respiratory muscle contractions and the beating of the heart. No vertebrate could survive without these functions. Other parts of the human brain are devoted to specifically human functions such as facial recognition, communication of emotions, language and abstract thought. The basic-physiology parts of the brain can be regarded as analogous to housekeeping genes, and the higher-function parts to luxury genes.

FACT Underactivity of the brains management networks is typical of persons with ADD Effective medications increase

The human brain weighs about three pounds and is composed of approximately 100 billion neurons, tiny cells only one millionth of an inch across. These neurons are the building blocks of the brain. Each neuron has a cell body on which develop tens of thousands of tiny branches called dendrites these dendrites receive information from other neurons. Each neuron also has one extension, called an axon, for sending information out to other cells these can range in length from less than a millimeter to over a meter long. Part A of Figure 2 shows a neuron and some of its dendrites emerging from the dense matrix of intertwined neurons in the brain.

Algorithms for Prostate Cancer Detection

An artificial neural network (ANN) is a complex computer system designed to replicate human decision making by modeling the human neuron.6 The human brain is made up of neurons and millions of multiple synapses it is believed that with learning, the weighting of individual

Summary And Conclusions

Andres-Mateos, L.M. Solis-Garrido, C. Montiel, A.G. Garcia, and A. Albillos. 2002. A perforated patch-clamp study of calcium currents and exocytosis in chromaffin cells of wildtype and alpha(1A) knockout mice. J Neurochem 81 911-921. Althini, S., H. Bengtsson, D. Usoskin, S. Soderstrom, A. Kylberg, E. Lindqvist, S. Chuva de Sousa Lopes, et al. 2003. Normal nigrostriatal innervation but dopamine dysfunction in mice carrying hypomorphic tyrosine hydroxylase alleles. J Neurosci Res 72 444-453. Arpa, J., A. Cuesta, A. Cruz-Martinez, S. Santiago, J. Sarria, and F. Palau. 1999. Clinical features and genetic analysis of a Spanish family with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. Acta Neurol Scand 99 43-47. Augood, S.J., D.M. Martin, L.J. Ozelius, X.O. Breakefield, J.B. Penney, Jr, and D.G. Standaert. 1999. Distribution of the mRNAs encoding torsinA and torsinB in the normal adult human brain. Ann Neurol 46 761-769. Bernier, G., and R. Kothary. 1998. Prenatal onset of...

Body Architecture

And either effectively repaired, or completely replaced by regeneration. This rejuvenated system could take over, and allow the other one to be repaired or replaced later on. Such duplicated system would also depend on a pool of cells capable of indefinite cell division, unlike the cells we actually have. The central nervous system provides a particular problem. An immortal animal would have to have the means of replacing senescent neurons, or the cells of the retina. We can imagine that learning is compatible with formation of new cells (as seems to occur when birds learn new songs), but it is much harder to envisage the replacement of memory. There is every reason to believe that human memory is dependent on long-lasting structures, including neural circuits. To imagine the transmission of the information which comprises memory from one set of neurons to a new set, is indeed mind-boggling To put it bluntly, a dynamic or plastic central nervous system, with full renewal of component...

Resolution of the Paradox

First, individuals transmit their knowledge and experience, gained during their lifetime, to other members of the community. The social evolution of human populations depends on this transmission. It includes the transmission of existing human knowledge, through education in all its forms. It also includes the transmission of new cultural activity, encompassed in books, various art forms, technology and science. Many are successful in such activities (either as individuals or as members of a group), but many more are the recipients who benefit from them. Second, our transient existence also has the positive function of transmitting human genes to the next generation. The germ line is the quintessence of immortality the product of a billion years of biological evolution, and sustaining all future generations. Natural ageing and death is the price we pay for successful reproduction. But it is not only reproduction which has made human beings the dominant species on earth. It is the...

Memory Impairment After

Several minutes to years prior to the injury.23-25 In one of the first experiments to investigate the cognitive consequences of TBI in animals, Ommaya and coworkers26 tested animals for retention of a passive-avoidance task after TBI. In this study, rats received an escapable foot shock when they entered a black compartment. When the animal escaped to the white (nonshocked) compartment, it was removed and TBI was administered. When the rats were returned to the white (nonshocked) compartment, the latency to enter the black (previously shocked) compartment was recorded. Long latencies to enter the black compartment indicate good retention of the task. On the other hand, short latencies represent a retention deficit (i.e., amnesia). Results indicated that the step-through latency of the injured rats was significantly shorter than uninjured controls. The impairment of retention of a task learned prior to injury confirms that TBI does produce RA, as is observed in cases of human brain...

Materials And Methods

Middle ears were examined in eight species of two genera of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) of different body sizes (skull lengths) occurring in different precipitation regimes Coetomys amatus (CAM), Coetomys anselli (CA), Coetomys damarensis (CDAM), Coetomys darlingi (CDAR), Coetomys kafuensis (CK), Coetomys mechowi (CM), Coetomys whytei (CW) and Cryptomys pretoriae (CPRE) (Coetomys represents a resurrected genus, the species of which were previously referred to as Cryptomys Ingram et al., 2004). Ears of each adult individual were examined bilaterally. Origin and numbers of the adult specimens involved in our study are given in Table 1. The animals were sacrificed and perfused by 4 paraformaldehyde as part of a larger study to investigate the neuroanatomy of the eight representatives. The heads were kept immersed in 70 ethanol for at least four weeks prior to preparation. The numbers of analyzed ossicles are given in the text.

Taihung Duong PhD Chap 6 Cellular Communication

Taihung (Peter) Duong is Associate Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, and Director of the Terre Haute Center. He received a B.A. degree in Biology from Whittier College in 1977 and a Ph.D. degree in Anatomy from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1989. He completed 2 years in a postdoctoral fellowship in neuroanatomy at the UCLA Mental Retardation Research Center before joining the faculty at the Indiana University School of Medicine in 1991. His research interests are brain aging and Alzheimer disease.

Synaptic activity amyloidp and Alzheimers disease

Eeg Pathway

In addition to our own findings, several pieces of information convinced us that it would be important to determine whether neuronal or synaptic activity in some way was linked with the concentration of ISF Ap in vivo. First, in the 1990s, Gouras, Gandy, and colleagues (1997), studying patients who had a temporal lobe removed as part of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy, found that a large percentage of these individuals who were less than 50 years of age had amyloid plaques in their hippocampus (Gouras et al. 1997). This finding is otherwise very uncommon before the age of 50, unless one has Down's syndrome or an autosomal dominant form of familial AD. While there are many possible reasons for this finding, one is that deposition of Ap was somehow linked to excessive electrical activity over time. Second, in 2003, Roberto Malinow's lab made several observations with organotypic brain slices cultures, including the fact that drugs that decrease neuronal activity decrease Ap in cell...

Meninges Ventricles Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Supply

Cerebellum Csf Tap Site

Because the brain and CSF are very similar in density, the brain neither sinks nor floats in the CSF but remains suspended in it that is, the brain has neutral buoyancy. A human brain removed from the body weighs about 1,500 g, but when suspended in CSF its effective weight is only about 50 g. By analogy, consider how much easier it is to lift another person when you are standing in a lake than it is on land. Neutral buoyancy allows the brain to attain considerable size without being impaired by its own weight. If the brain rested heavily on the floor of the cranium, the pressure would kill the nervous tissue.

Lincomycin and Clindamycin

Clindamycin is rapidly removed from serum to body tissues and fluids and it penetrates well into saliva, sputum, respiratory tissue, pleural fluid, soft tissues, prostate, semen, bones, and joints (62), as well as into fetal blood and tissues. No data exist to show that significant concentrations are achievable in the human brain, cerebrospinal fluid, or eye.

Disease Models Involving Neovascularization And Squalamine

The rat 9L glioma is widely used as a model for human brain tumors, and for evaluation of the consequences of chemotherapy (82-85). Carmustine (1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea BCNU) is an approved agent for the treatment of human brain tumors, and is active in the rat 9L glioma model. BCNU displays cumulative toxicity in animals and humans, so that, when given systemically in animals, a single dose is the common dosage. Systemic squalamine was compared in the rat 9L glioma model to BCNU treatment, when the 9L glioma was transplanted either in the rat brain or in the rat flank. In the latter instance, the blood-brain barrier is not encountered, and drug delivery is less in doubt.

The relationship between tauopathy and amyloidosis in aging and sporadic AD

Surprisingly, we observed a parallel and synergistic effect of ApPP dysfunction (as visualized by Ap deposition) on the neuron-to-neuron propagation of tau pathology. Indeed, tau pathology can be found in the hippocampal area without Ap deposits, as mentioned by Braak and Braak (1997b). In contrast, the extension of tau pathology in polymodal association areas was systematically found in the presence of Ap deposits (Ap stages 4 to 10), as if these Ap species, directly or indirectly, were necessary to stimulate the progression of tau pathology (Fig. 2). Altogether, our results clearly demonstrated that amyloid deposits do not precede tau pathology in sporadic AD, as claimed in the amyloid cascade hypothesis based upon familial cases (Hardy and Higgins 1992b Hardy and Selkoe 2002). Also, a systematic analysis of tauopathy, amyloidosis and synucleopathy in sporadic Lewy body disease (LBD) revealed a similar pattern. Indeed, the extension of synucleopathy in neocortical areas is observed...

Early History Pre WWII

The current approach of combining clinical and biological studies of dementia started to take shape at the beginning of the 20th century in parallel with advances in histology (chemistry of tissue stains), light microscopy and neuroanatomy (Beach 1987 Bick et al. 1987). The early pioneers of the field were able to make some groundbreaking observations about dementia because of access to a wealth of new technologies for studying the brain and the emergence of vibrant academic environments that fostered interactions and cross-fertilization among psychiatrist, neurologist and neuropathologist. Reports by Blocq and Marinesco 1892 and later by Redlich 1898 began to describe the relationships between neocortical senile plaques and senile dementia. Oskar Fisher 1907 was one of the first to suggest that severity of dementia and memory loss might be associated with senile plaques. Alois Alzheimer, a psychiatrist with an abiding interest to help psychiatry through the microscope was among the...

Squalamine And Endothelial Cells

The specificity of squalamine for endothelial cells was evaluated in culture with bovine retina (BREC) and rat brain (RBE-4) endothelial cells at different concentrations, and compared to results with rat (9L glioma), rabbit (VX2 carcinoma), and human brain tumor (H80) cells (66). The endothelial cell lines were grown in DMEM media containing 10 fetal bovine serum, 1 L-glutamine, 25 mM HEPES, and genticine and 20 ng mL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the presence or absence of squalamine. The growth factor was added to the cells prior to the addition of squalamine to the cell cultures. Squalamine exposure was observed to specifically inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation for BREC cells, but not the growth of any of the tumor lines (Fig. 4). The degree of inhibition of VEGF-stimulated BREC cells, or RBE-4 cells found with squalamine, increased with increasing squalamine concentration. For example, the net growth of BREC cells was inhibited by more than 30...

The Dopaminergic Pathways

Dopaminergic Pathways And Antipsychotics

Figure 4.6 Representation of the primary dopamine-containing tracts in the human brain. The nigrostriatal tract is primarily involved in motor control, but also in reward- and goal-directed behavior. Blockade of D2 receptors here produces some of the antipsychotic effects of antipsychotics, but high levels of blockade (> 80 ) produce parkinsonian side-effects. Blockade of D2 receptors in the tuberoinfundibular pathway increases plasma prolactin. It is thought that it is the blockade of D2 and D2-like receptors in the mesolimbic and mesocortical tracts that underlies the primary antipsychotic effects of all currently available antipsychotics Figure 4.6 Representation of the primary dopamine-containing tracts in the human brain. The nigrostriatal tract is primarily involved in motor control, but also in reward- and goal-directed behavior. Blockade of D2 receptors here produces some of the antipsychotic effects of antipsychotics, but high levels of blockade (> 80 ) produce...

Andreas Vesalius On The Fabric Of The Human Body

Vesalius With Cadaver

In response to his critics, Vesalius denounced the ''self-styled Prometheans'' who claimed that Galen was always right and argued that the alleged errors in his works were proof that the human body had degenerated since the classical era. Galenists, Vesalius declared, could not distinguish between the fourth carpal bone and a chickpea, but they wanted to destroy his work just as their predecessors had destroyed the works of Herophilus and Erasistratus. Recalling how he had once been under Galen's influence, Vesalius admitted that he used to keep the head of an ox handy to demonstrate the rete mirabile, a network of blood vessels that Galen had placed at the base of the human brain. Unable to find the rete mirabile in human cadavers, anatomists rationalized this inconsistency by asserting that, in humans, the structure disappeared very soon after death. When Vesalius finally came to terms with Galen's fallibility, he openly declared that such a network was not present in humans.

Brainstem and diencephalon ventral view

Cerebellar Flocculus

In the human brain, the brainstem is a relatively small mass of brain tissue compared to the large hemispheres, but it is packed with various nuclei and tracts. Among these nuclei are those of 10 of the cranial nerves (CN III to CN XII). Many basic brain activities are located in the brainstem, including key vital functions (control of blood pressure, pulse, and respiration). Some motor functions are found at various brainstem levels, some as part of the reticular formation the reticular formation is also part of a system that is responsible for consciousness. Most important, the ascending sensory and descending motor tracts pathways that connect the spinal cord with higher areas of the brain pass through the brainstem (described in Section B). In addition, many of the connections to the cerebellum, including pathways and nuclei, are found in the brainstem. Finally, each part of the brainstem has a part of the ventricular system.

White matter lateral dissected view association bundles photograph

Arcuate Fasciculus

These association bundles are extremely important in informing different brain regions of ongoing neuronal processing, allowing for integration of our activities (for example sensory with motor and limbic). One of the major functions of these association bundles in the human brain seems to be bringing information to the frontal lobes, especially to the prefrontal cortex, which acts as the executive director of brain activity (see Figure 14A).

Basal ganglia orientation

From the strictly anatomical point of view, the basal ganglia are collections of neurons located within the hemispheres. Traditionally, this would include the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the globus pallidus, and the amygdala (see Figure OA and Figure OL). The caudate and putamen are also called the neostriatum histologi-cally these are the same neurons but in the human brain they are partially separated from each other by projection fibers (see Figure 26). The putamen and globus pallidus are anatomically grouped together in the human brain and are called the lentiform or lenticular nucleus because of the lens-like configuration of the two nuclei, yet these are functionally distinct. The development of the human brain includes the evolution of a temporal lobe and many structures migrate into this lobe, including the lateral ventricle. The caudate nucleus organization follows the curvature of the lateral ventricle into the temporal lobe (see Figure OL and Figure 25).

Cranial nerve nuclei motor

Brainstem With Cranial Nerves

This diagram shows the location of the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves, superimposed upon the ventral view of the brainstem. These nuclei are also shown in Figure 40, in which the brainstem is presented from a dorsal perspective. The details of the location of the cranial nerve nuclei within the brainstem will be described in Section C of this atlas (Neurological Neuroanatomy) with Figure 64-Figure 67.

Life regulation through the high and low cytotoxicity

Ach Achr Ache

These alkaloids can activate AChE or inhibit it by influence of enzyme AChE (Figure 81). As in cases of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, AChE can be inhibited. As a result of this, acetylcholine activity increases. Acetyl-choline activity is needed for human brain function. It seems that Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have a wide biological regulatory ability. It is known that lycorine, one of the most important Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, is actively antiviral. Pseu-dolycorine and pretazettine are active against several types of leukaemia by the inhibition of protein synthesis and prevention of peptide-bond formation358. Galanthanine has analgesic, anticholinergic and anticholinesterase properties. The minor Amaryllidaceae alkaloids studied by Abd El Hafiz et al358 are also biologically active. The lycorine-type alkaloid (pratorinine) and the crinine-type alkaloid (6a-hydroxybuphanisine) showed a moderate cytotoxic activity. Moreover, ( )-spectaline, apiperedine alkaloid isolated...

Blood Pressure Management

Manipulation of blood pressure becomes necessary in many ischemic stroke patients, as patients with ongoing ischemia and fixed stenotic arterial lesion(s) may require blood pressure management to feed the ischemic penumbra. Conversely, patients with cerebral edema may require blood pressure lowering to reduce the detrimental effect of increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). In the normal human brain, CBF is kept relatively constant by the mechanism of cerebral autoregulation. This applies throughout a range of CPP from approximately 40 to 140 mm Hg. Beyond this range, the autoregulatory capacity is overwhelmed, and at pressures below 40 mm Hg further ischemia ensues. At pressures above 140 mm Hg, cerebral edema often worsens. Both of these circumstances assume an intact autoregulatory capacity, which may be significantly impaired in acute stroke patients. Older patients, or patients with chronic hypertension, often have poor vasoreactivity of

Aggregated and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins a powerful marker of neurofibrillary degeneration

Approach, and to cope with the problem of dephosphorylation during post-mortem delays, we demonstrated that tau are abnormally phosphorylated, since post-mortem tau from AD patients (under the influence of post-mortem dephosphorylation) are more acidic that native tau from post-operative (not dephosphorylated) human brain biopsies (Sergeant et al. 1995).

Unique MAP2 Species in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

About that time, Joachim Kirsch, a visiting scientist, and currently Professor at the faculty of Medicine, University of Ulm, joined the lab. Together with Aliza Zutra, he was able to identify three MAP2 species (270, 250, and 70 kDa) in cultured human neuroblastoma cells. The expression of the 250 -kDa isoform, termed MAP2d, appeared to be unique for cultured human neuroblastoma cells and fetal human brain. On the other hand, in adult human cerebellum, the same antibody detected only the 270-kDa MAP2 species. In addition, it was observed that human neuroblastoma cells show a shift from the embryonic 250-kDa MAP2d isoform to the more mature 270-kDa species when induced to differentiate with dibutyryl cAMP. Thus, the level of MAP2d may serve as a differentiation marker for neuroblastoma and nerve cells 108 . Analysis of neural-derived tumors showed that MAP2d is found in solid tumors diagnosed as neuroblastoma, but hardly in ganglioneur-oma tumors. In contrast, both neuroblastoma and...

The Last Ten Years Before my Retirement in Cologne 19881997

When I retired in February 1998, I had worked almost forty years on the lac system of E. coli. Almost all my colleagues who had worked on systems of E. coli had abandoned their objects, under the assumption that these systems have been solved. I think this is far from true. The closer one looks at an object of the living matter the more wonderful it becomes. Now, when industrialized proteomics will be the main type of research for the next twenty years, many will leave the eucaryotic systems and with similar arguments move to the last bastion of the living matter the human brain. Again I think this is a mistake. The lac system of E. coli is an excellent example of such an abandoned object. I am glad that I wrote a book about it 26 . Sydney Brenner made an interesting comment in his review When molecular biology finally comes to an end, and a massive crash of the computer system in the library of

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Arsenic Metabolism Disease

MRS provides chemical information on tissue metabolites (3,4). The molecules that can be studied by MRS in human brain tissue are hydrogen 1 ( H) and phosphorus 31 (31P). Magnetic resonance sensitivity is far greater for protons than it is for phosphorus (3). Therefore, most commercial MR scanners are capable of only proton MRS. Spectra are usually obtained from localized brain regions. The brain region is defined on a single slice by placing a small voxel, on the order of 1 or 2 cm2, in the area of interest. The compounds that can be observed in proton spectra are primarily identified by their frequency (i.e., their position in the spectrum), expressed as the shift in frequency in pars per million (ppm) relative to a standard. A normal spectrum shows peaks from N-acetyl groups, especially N-acetylaspartate (NAA) at 2.0 ppm, creatine (Cr), and phosphocreatine at 3.0 ppm, and cho-line-containing phospholipids (Ch) at 3.2 ppm (3). An additional peak at 1.3 ppm arises from the methyl...

Cortical Spreading Depression

Also be aware that needling of the cortex is effective, and it seems inescapable that more complex surgical manipulations of similar, susceptible tissue are likely to be effective if, as seems clear from the recent findings in patients 4 , CSD does indeed occur in the human brain. There is also experimental evidence that spreading depression occurs in the spinal cord 9 . What determines susceptibility, by which is meant the frequency of occurrence of CSD (rather than vulnerability to damage from depolarisa-tions), is an important theme of this review. The factors which are currently believed to affect this are species differences, location in the brain, haemodynamic and metabolic conditions in the cortex, anaesthesia, and systemic metabolic variables (essentially - in the present state of knowledge - plasma glucose). All of these factors are best considered after we have first reviewed the basic electrophysiological, haemodynamic and metabolic properties of CSD. Studies of normal,...

The driving forces for the evolutionary increase in brain size

Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that the large human brain, like the peacock's tail, is the result of sexual selection. Ancestral peahens were more attracted to mates with bigger and more ornate tails. Therefore, size and ornateness of tail were selected for. Therefore, we now have peacocks with ludicrously exuberant tails. By analogy, hominid females were more attracted to mates with bigger brains. Therefore, bigger brains were selected for. Therefore, we now have humans with ludicrously big and complicated brains. On the face of it, this seems plausible. Sexual selection has been held to account for evolutionary super-growth in various animal features. However, sexual selection only favours exaggerated development of features in the male. It is the peacock, not the peahen, that has the dazzling tail. In humans, the ratio of brain size to body size is essentially the same in both sexes. Moreover, even if brainier males did attract more mates in the evolutionary past, this...

The Development of Executive Functions in the Brain

Another important but slowly evolving element is myelination, the development of a protective surface coating that insulates the fibers that carry messages within the brain and elsewhere in the body. Myelin functions much as insulation around an electrical wire it protects from short circuits and can enhance up to a hundredfold the speed with which messages can zip along the brain's networks, sometimes reaching transmission speeds of two hundred miles per hour. While most myelination of the human brain occurs before age two, the process continues well into the fourth decade of life. The more complex structures of the brain, those that exercise more central management functions, are not fully myelinated until considerably later than other brain structures that are less complex (Sampaio and Truwit 2001).

Stroke Neuroprotective Clinical Trials Lessons from Past Failures

In the preclinical stage, therapies are often tested on healthy, young animals under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions, and, most often, the treatment is not adequately tested (for example, by multiple investigators in different stroke models) before it is brought to clinical trial. Whereas experimental animals are bred for genetic homogeneity, genetic differences and factors such as advanced age and co-morbidities (hypertension, diabetes) in patients may alter their therapeutic response. Moreover, despite similarities in the basic pathophysiology of stroke between species, there are important differences in brain structure, function, and vascular anatomy. The human brain is gyrated, has greater neuronal and glial densities, and is larger than the rodent brain. Some rodents (gerbils) lack a complete circle of Willis (gerbils), while others (rats) have highly effective collaterals between large cerebral vessels. As a result, there are important differences in the size,...

Drosophila Models of Huntington Disease

Huntington disease (HD) is a late-onset, neurodegenera-tive disease characterized by psychiatric disturbances, cognitive impairment, and a movement disorder it is also associated with region-specific neuronal loss, particularly within the striatum of human brain. The causative mutation for HD is an expansion of a polymorphic CAG repeat domain within the coding region of the HD gene 1 . HD is one of a group of at least nine inherited neurodegenerative diseases that includes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy disease) and a number of spinocere-bellar ataxias (SCA) that are all caused by CAG repeat expansions in the coding region of the disease gene that are translated into expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences in the gene product 2,3 . All of these diseases are late onset and progressive and exhibit movement disorders. Polyglutamine repeat diseases lend themselves particularly well to modeling in Drosophila due to the dominant nature of the single CAG repeat gene...

Dopamine And Dystonia

Investigators have reported data supporting the hypothesis that abnormalities in dopamine transmission play a role in the pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia. The mRNA for torsinA is strongly expressed in dopamine neurons in normal adult human brain (24, 25). TorsinA immunoreactivity is found within axons and presynaptic terminals in adult human and nonhuman primate striatum (26). Morphologically, some of the torsinA immunoreactive terminals resemble dopamine terminals, and within the terminals torsinA immunoreactivity is found in association with vesicles (26) (26). Additional studies analyzed dopamine, its metabolites, dopamine transporters, and dopamine receptors in four postmortem DYT1 brains (27). During life, three of the individuals had carried a clinical diagnosis of dystonia and one had carried a clinical diagnosis of Parkinsonism. The tissue

Previous editions

The atlas was originally published with the title of Student's Atlas of Neuroanatomy. The diagrams in the first editions were created by Mr. Jean-Pierre Morrissey, a medical student at the time he did the work. To these were added photographs of brain specimens taken by Mr. Stanley Klosevych, who was then the director of the Health Sciences Communication Services, University of Ottawa. Mr. Emil Purgina, a medical artist with the same unit, assisted in these early editions and added his own illustration. Dr. Andrei Rosen subsequently created the airbrush diagrams (note particularly the basal ganglia, thalamus, and limbic system) and expanded the pool of illustrations. For the previous edition of the atlas under its new title The Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy many of the earlier illustrations were replaced by computer-generated diagrams done by Mr. Gordon Wright, a medical illustrator. Mr. Wright also put together the CD-ROM for the previous edition, which contained all the...

Color coding

Color adds a significant beneficial dimension to the learning of neuroanatomy. The colors have a functional role in this atlas, in that they are used consistently for the presentation of sensory, motor, and other components. The following is the color coding used in this atlas, as shown on the opposite page


Omy, includes a neurological orientation and detailed neu-roanatomical information, to allow the student to work through the neurological question Where is the disease process occurring (i.e., neurological localization) Because vascular lesions are still most common and relate closely to the functional neuroanatomy, the blood supply to the brain is presented in some detail, using photographs with overlays. The emphasis in this section is on the brain-stem, including a select series of histological cross-sections of the human brainstem. In addition, there is a summary of the spinal cord nuclei and tracts, along with a histological view of levels of the human cord.

List of Contributors

Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany Laboratory of Histology, Neuroanatomy and Neuropathology, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, School of Medicine. 808, Route de Lennik, Bldg C-10,1070 Brussels, Belgium Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J.W. Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7,60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany


Although cortical spreading depression and peri-infarct depolarisations have been extensively studied in the experimental in vivo models, there is now clear evidence that depolarisations also occur and propagate in the human brain in areas surrounding a focus of traumatic contusion. 6. Whether such events in the injured human brain represent cortical spreading depression or peri-infarct depolarisation is unclear. However, invasive and probably non-invasive monitoring methods are available which may serve to distinguish which event has occurred. 7. Much further work will be needed to examine the relationship of depolarisation events in the injured brain with outcome from cerebral ischaemia or head injury, to examine the factors which influence the frequency of depolarisation events, and to determine which depolarisation events in the human brain augment the injury and should be prevented. depression-like depolarisation. Physiol Rev 81 1065-1096 Strong AJ, Fabricius M, Boutelle MG,...

Brain state

Essentially, the structure of the human brain consists of neurones connected via synapses to form pathways or circuits50. Brain function consists of the activities of these circuits ordered sequences of action potentials, neurotransmitter release events, and postsynaptic responses. Function obviously depends on structure. However, as we showed in chapter 16, structure also depends on function. Neuronal activities alter the strengths of synapses and they also forge new growth in axon termini and the formation of new connections, i.e. new circuits.


Neuropathologically, PSP is characterized by abundant neurofibrillary tangles and or neuropil threads particularly in the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, oculomotor complex, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculi, basis pontis, dentate nucleus, and prefrontal cortex (see Fig. 2). Neuronal loss and gliosis are variable (see Chapter 4) (6,41). Pathological tau in PSP is composed of aggregated four-repeat (E10+) isoforms that accumulate as abnormal filamentous lesions in cells and glia in subcortical and cortical areas (42,43). In the normal adult human brain, there are six different tau isoforms with different microtubule-binding domains and the ratio of tau isoforms with three- (3-R) and four-repeat (4-R) microtubule binding domains is 1 1. In AD, there is amyloid deposition and the six tau isoforms aggregate mainly in neurons, but the 1 1 ratio is maintained. By contrast, in PSP and CBD, there is no amyloid deposition and tau aggregates in neurons and glia...

Brains and computers

Mammalian brains, particularly human brains, are the most complicated objects known in the universe. Every generation compares the brain to the most complicated piece of technology so far invented. In the 17th century, Leibnitz compared it to a water-mill. At the end of the 19th century, Freud compared it to a hydraulic system. In the 1930s it was compared to a telephone exchange, in the 1960s to a digital computer. Most recently it has been compared to a neural network or parallel-processing system, a development in computer technology partly inspired by (but not necessarily intended to simulate) a living brain. How useful is this analogy signals, recognise patterns, interpolate data, make predictions, guide movement on the basis of visual information, and even synthesise speech. But they are not really like brains. A one-year-old child's visual processing capacity far exceeds that of any computer. Different areas of the human brain detect and interpret form, motion and colour in a...


Tau is a microtubule-associated protein located in the neuronal axons. There are six different isoforms and numerous phosphorylation sites of tau in the human brain (Goedert, 1993). Using monoclonal antibodies that detect all isoforms of tau independent of phosphorylation, ELISAs have been developed that measure the 'total' CSF-tau level (Vandermeeren et al., 1993 Blennow et al., 1995 Vigo-Pelfrey et al., 1995).

Future Analysis

Friberg, X.O. Breakefield, A.B. Young, L.J. Ozelius, and D.G. Standaert. 1998. Expression of the early-onset torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) in human brain. Ann Neurol 43 669-673. 25. Augood, S., D.M. Martin, L.J. Ozelius, X.O. Breakefield, J.B. Penney, and D.G. Standaert. 1999. Distribution of the mRNAs encoding torsinA and torsinB in the normal adult human brain. Ann Neurol 46 761-769. 26. Augood, S.J., C.E. Keller-McGandy, A. Siriani, J. Hewett, V. Ramesh, E. Sapp, M. Difiglia, et al. 2003. Distribution and ultrastructural localization of torsinA immunoreactivity in the human brain. Brain Res 986 12-21.


Brain state bears some comparison to the internal state of a cell (chapter 6), although cellular transport has no obvious counterpart in the brain. Like a cell's internal state, brain state changes from moment to moment. The structures and functions of the numerous circuits, and the control process operating in them, are never constant. Since brains cause minds, it follows that the workings of the mind are underpinned by an ever-shifting pattern of activities and an ever-changing set of connections among the 1015 or so synapses in the human brain.


Eva was one of the most outstanding but unassuming neuroanatomists and neurobiologists of her generation, who made major research contributions to Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In the 1970s, Eva and her husband, Heiko Braak, developed the special histological techniques to study whole human brain 100 mm sections, and implemented their use for immunocy-tochemistry and advanced silver impregnation methods to study the histopathology of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. They successfully employed these techniques, not only to correlate distinctive pigmentation patterns of several types of nerve cells with the features of these cells in Golgi and immunostained sections but also, in 1989, to identify a new, not infrequently occurring tauopathy, argyrophilic grain disease or 'Braak's disease', which is often marked by cognitive impairment. In 1991, they developed a now widely used staging system for the evolution of Alzheimer's disease histopathology called the Braak...


Apoptosis occurs via caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent mechanisms (Fig. 1.3). Caspas-es are protein-cleaving enzymes (zymogens) that belong to a family of cysteine aspartases constitutively expressed in both adult and especially newborn brain cells, particularly neurons. Since caspase-dependent cell death requires energy in the form of ATP, apopto-sis predominantly occurs in the ischemic penumbra (which sustains milder injury) rather than in the ischemic core, where ATP levels are rapidly depleted 31 . The mechanisms of cleavage and activation of caspases in human brain are believed to be similar to those documented in experimental models of stroke, trauma, and neurodegeneration 32 .Apopto-genic triggers 33 include oxygen free radicals 34 , Bcl2, death receptor ligation 35 , DNA damage, and possibly lysosomal protease activation 36 . Several mediators facilitate cross communication between The normal human brain expresses caspases-1, -3, -8, and -9, apoptosis...

Thalamus orientation

Thalamus Massa Intermedia

As shown diagrammatically (see Figure 6) and photographically (see Figure 7 and Figure 9A), the dienceph-alon sits atop the brainstem. The enormous growth of the cerebral hemispheres in the human brain has virtually hidden or buried the diencephalon (somewhat like a weeping willow tree) so that it can no longer be visualized from the outside except from the inferior view (see pituitary stalk and mammillary bodies in Figure 15A and Figure 15B, which are part of the hypothalamus).

Texts and atlases

Afifi, A.K. and Bergman, R.A., Functional Neuroanatomy Text and Atlas, 2nd ed., Lange Medical Books, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005. Carpenter, M.B., Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 4th ed., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1991. This classic textbook by a highly respected author presents a detailed description of the nervous system, from the perspective of a neuroanatomist. A more complete version is also available as a reference text Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, (1995), now with A. Parent as the author. Fitzgerald, M.J.T. and Folan-Curran, J., Clinical Neuroanatomy and Related Neuroscience, 4th ed., Saunders, Philadelphia, 2002. A classic in the field and highly recommended for a good understanding of the human brain in action. Topics discussed include memory, attention, language, and the limbic system. Martin, J.H., Neuroanatomy Text and Atlas, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York. 2003. Nolte, J., The Human Brain, 5th ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 2002. Williams, P. and Warwick, R., Functional...

Alzheimers Disease

Vesicles Model

The human brain consists of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem, which is continuous with the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system (CNS). The hippocampus, lying beneath the surface of the brain, coordinates memory functions. The human central nervous system. The human brain consists of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem, which is continuous with the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system (CNS). The hippocampus, lying beneath the surface of the brain, coordinates memory functions. Neurons are remarkable cells, specially designed for communication. A signal, in the form of an electrochemical jolt, enters a neuron at its dendrites and is passed along to another neuron through the axon, a process that takes less than a microsecond. Neural circuits are constructed when axons make contact with the dendrites of other neurons. The connection between an...