Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course

Human Anatomy And Physiology Premium Course

This is honestly the most complete ultimate home study course in human anatomy and physiology course you'll ever find on the Internet. With over 3000+ pages coupled with detailed illustrations and diagrams, it blows other similar courses away. Take a fascinating journey inside the mysterious hidden wonders of the body via pages of structural information and beautifully detailed anatomical images to find answers to questions. All structures and musculature are modeled and labeled including nerves, deep and superficial muscles, blood supply, skeletal structures and unique features for each individual body parts. Each topic is linked via references with test quizzes and this provides the best way to learn and understand human anatomy and the body.The Ultimate Home Study Course On Human Anatomy & Physiology: Cover Hundreds of Medical Topics Spanning Over 3000+ Pages. Award Winning Course Previously Only Sold To Medical Professionals. Each Lessons Ends With Key Facts, Revision Tests + Solutions To Reinforce Learning and Pinpoint Weaknesses. Detailed Illustrations With Labels To Aid Your Comprehension And Boost Your Retention. Idiot Proof Coverage Of Every Region & System In The Body and Identify Specific Muscle Groups and Their Functions. Simple Explanations of Cell Structures & Body Tissue and Review Key Anatomy & Physiology Concepts. Perfect For Medical Practitioners, Students, Educators, Anatomists, Sports Trainers, Injury Law Attorneys, Chiropractors, Therapists, Nurses and Paramedics. No Prior Medical Training Is Required. Continue reading...

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Andreas Vesalius On The Fabric Of The Human Body

Vesalius With Cadaver

Just as Copernicus and Galileo revolutionized ideas about the motions of the earth and the heavens, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) transformed Western concepts of the structure of the human body. Vesalius' great treatise, The Fabric of the Human Body (De humani corporis fabrica), appeared in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) published the text that placed the sun, rather than the earth, at the center of the universe (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres). Vesalius was heir to the humanist medical tradition that had rediscovered the original writings of Hippocrates and Galen. He was a member of the first generation of scholars to enjoy access to the complete works of Galen. The Fabrica, which is considered the first anatomical treatise based on direct observation of the human body, is still regarded as a milestone in the history of anatomy. In honor of its place in the history of Western medicine, in 1998, scholars began publishing a five-volume English...

Chapter One Introduction

Anatomical Directional Terms

When studying the human body it is important to place the body in anatomical position. Anatomical position is described as the body facing you, feet placed together and flat on the floor. The head is held erect, arms straight by the side with palms facing forward. All references to the body are made as if the body is in this position so when you describe something as being above something else it is always with respect to the body being in anatomical position. The relative position of the parts of the human body has specific terms. Superior means above while inferior means below. Medial refers to being close to the midline while lateral means to the side. Anterior or ventral is to the front while posterior or dorsal is to the back. Superficial is near the surface while deep means to the core of the body. When working with the limbs, proximal means closer to the trunk while distal is to the ends of the extremities. Write the directional terms in the spaces provided and color in the...

Clinical Examples Make It Relevant

Cranial Nerves Fake Brain

Anatomy and Physiology is fundamentally a textbook of the basic science of the human body. However, students always want to know why all the science is relevant to their career aims. Clinical examples and thought questions make it so. Students can see how the science relates to well-known dysfunctions, and why it is important to know the basics. Dysfunctions also provide windows of insight into the basic concepts, such as the insight that cystic fibrosis gives on the importance of membrane ion channels, or that antidepressants give on the synaptic reuptake of neurotransmitters.

The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology

Medical Examination Cadaver History

The simplest way to study human anatomy is the observation of surface structure, for example in performing a physical examination or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearance. But a deeper understanding of the body depends on dissection the careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships. Both anatomy1 and dissection2 literally mean cutting apart dissecting used to be called anatomizing. The dissection of a dead human body, or cadaver,3 is an essential part of the training of many health science students (fig. 1.1). Many insights into human structure are obtained from comparative anatomy the study of more than one species in order to learn generalizations and evolutionary trends. Students of anatomy often begin by dissecting other animals with which we share a common ancestry and many structural similarities.

Review of Major Themes

Pet Scan Brain Visual And Spatial

To close this chapter, let's distill a few major points from it. These themes can provide you with a sense of perspective that will make the rest of the book more meaningful and not just a collection of disconnected facts. These are some key unifying principles behind all study of human anatomy and physiology Homeostasis. The purpose of most normal physiology is to maintain stable conditions within the body. Human physiology is essentially a group of mechanisms that produce stable internal conditions favorable to cellular function. Any serious departure from these conditions can be harmful or fatal to cells. Evolution. The human body is a product of evolution. Like every other living species, we have been molded by millions of years of natural selection to function in a changing environment. Many aspects of human anatomy and physiology reflect our ancestors' adaptations to their environment. Human form and function cannot be fully understood except in light of our evolutionary...

Anatomical Planes Of The Body

Cells Tissues And Organs

The human body can be studied at different levels. Organs such as the stomach can be grouped into organ systems (digestive system) or can be studied on a smaller scale like the cellular level. The ranking of these levels is called a hierarchy. The smallest organizational unit is the atom. Individual atoms are grouped into larger structures called molecules.

Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

This book is an introduction to human structure and function, the biology of the human body. It is meant primarily to give you a foundation for advanced study in health care, exercise physiology, pathology, and other fields related to health and fitness. Beyond that purpose, however, it can also provide you with a deeply satisfying sense of self-understanding. As rewarding and engrossing as this subject is, the human body is highly complex and a knowledge of it requires us to comprehend a great deal of detail. The details will be more manageable if we relate them to a few broad, unifying concepts. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to introduce such concepts and put the rest of the book into perspective. We consider the historical development of anatomy and physiology, the thought processes that led to the knowledge in this book, the meaning of human life, and a central concept of physiology called homeostasis.

Mechanisms of Tear Drainage

Lacrimal Pump

Schematic anatomical model of the state of the cavernous body and lacrimal passage in the resting state (1) and under different experimental conditions (2-4) indicating the Fig. 1.10. Schematic anatomical model of the state of the cavernous body and lacrimal passage in the resting state (1) and under different experimental conditions (2-4) indicating the

Review of Key Concepts

Human anatomy, or structure, is studied at gross and microscopic (histological) levels. 3. Human physiology, or function, is studied by experimental methods, and often by comparison to other species. 3. Evolutionary medicine is the analysis of human form, function, and disease in light of the evolutionary history of the human body.

Pathophysiology and Diagnosis Inflammation and Extent of Disease

Physiologic differences exist between the right and left sides of the colon with the dominant luminal substrate for oxidative phosphorylation being glutamine in the right colon and butyrate in the left colon. In addition, there are differences in the distribution of inflammatory cells in the right and left colon, which may provide insight into the abrupt cessation of inflammation at the line of disease demarcation. We histologically evaluated the line of demarcation in an attempt to understand the aggressive and protective balance occurring at the inflammatory interface. Much to our surprise, there were numerous mast cells on the normal side of the line of demarcation and in the terminal ileum of patients with well-defined left-sided UC. Evolving understanding of the role of the mast cells in UC suggests that the mast cells may be providing a degree of protection rather than active inflammation. Until recently, the homeostatic role of mast cells has...

The Importance of External Anatomy

Upper Extremity Vein Diagram

In the study of human anatomy, it is easy to become so preoccupied with internal structure that we forget the importance of what we can see and feel externally. Yet external anatomy and appearance are major concerns in giving a physical examination and in many aspects of patient care. A knowledge of the body's surface landmarks is essential to one's competence in physical therapy, cardiopul-monary resuscitation, surgery, making X rays and electrocardiograms, giving injections, drawing blood, listening to heart and respiratory sounds, measuring the pulse and blood pressure, and finding pressure points to stop arterial bleeding, among other procedures. A misguided attempt to perform some of these procedures while disregarding or misunderstanding external anatomy can be very harmful and even fatal to a patient.

The Three Celestial Emperors Fu Hsi Shen Nung And Huang Ti

The original meanings of the characters for yin and yang are obscure, but light and shade appear to be fundamental aspects. The original characters might have represented the banks of a river, one in the shade and the other in the sun, or the shady side and the sunny side of a hill. Applying these concepts to the human body, the outside is relatively yang, the inside is relatively yin, and specific internal organs are associated with yang or yin. Chinese philosophers and scientists created an elaborate system to rationalize the relationships of the five phases to almost everything else. Thus, the sequences of creation and destruction among the five phases provided a foundation for classical concepts of human physiology.

Management Of Back And Leg Pain In Ancient Medicine

Avicenna (980-1037 ad), a Persian physician and philosopher who was born in Bokhara, also wrote extensively on human anatomy and the peripheral nerves. However, his writings make no clear reference to sciatic pain. His text Canon of Medicine formed the cornerstone of medical practice for ensuing centuries. Avicenna condemned the reliance on mysticism and astrology in medicine (4). His writings were translated into Latin and included in the medical curriculum of European universities. Avicenna's principal method of treating spinal disorders by traction and manipulation remains an accepted practice in many centers at present (Fig. 2), (5,6). A calligraphy (Fig.3), dating

Clinical Box 21 Graft Versus Host Disease

It occurs at the cell membrane to bring extracellular material into the cell. (a) Phagocytosis, or cellular eating, of an extracellular particle (b) Pinocytosis, or cellular sipping, of extracellular fluid with small solutes included. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.3 Endocytosis. It occurs at the cell membrane to bring extracellular material into the cell. (a) Phagocytosis, or cellular eating, of an extracellular particle (b) Pinocytosis, or cellular sipping, of extracellular fluid with small solutes included. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.4 Exocytosis. It can be described as a four-step process. A membrane-enclosed intracellular vesicle moves to the cell membrane (step 1). The two membranes fuse (step 2), allowing the contents of the vesicle to be expelled from the cell (step 3). The...

Nonmembrane Bound Organelles 231 Ribosomes

The three types of cytoskeletal filaments are microfilaments with a diameter of around 7 nm, microtubules which may exceed 25 nm, and intermediate filaments with an intermediary size. The filaments have in common that they are all composed of repeating protein subunits. The cytoskeleton provides for the form of the cell, for transport within the cell, and, in some cells, for the motility of the cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.7 Cytoskeleton. The three types of cytoskeletal filaments are microfilaments with a diameter of around 7 nm, microtubules which may exceed 25 nm, and intermediate filaments with an intermediary size. The filaments have in common that they are all composed of repeating protein subunits. The cytoskeleton provides for the form of the cell, for transport within the cell, and, in some cells, for the motility of the cell. (Reproduced with permission...

Galen On Anatomical Procedures

Anatomy could also be used to settle larger philosophical issues, such as the controversy about the seat of reason in the human body. Aristotelians placed reason in the heart, while others placed it in the head. One Aristotelian argument was that the voice, which is the instrument of reason, came from the chest. Thus, Galen's demonstration that the recurrent laryngeal nerves control the voice vindicated those who argued for control by the brain and explained what happened when surgeons accidentally severed these nerves. Galen thought that it was unnecessary to justify research by tenuous links to practical benefits, but, of course, he did not have to prepare grant proposals or yearly progress reports. Until the sixteenth century, Galen was generally accepted as the ultimate authority on anatomical and physiological questions despite the fact that, because of Roman prohibitions on human dissections, his ''human anatomy'' was based on dissection of other species. Often critical of his...

The Revolutionary War And New Republic

During the post-Revolutionary period of growth and social transformation, new civic, cultural, educational, and scientific institutions were established. As part of this rush to create indigenous institutions, American physicians established local, county, and state medical societies. Elite physicians, who had studied in Europe, believed that observation and experiment would lead to new understanding of human physiology, but most practitioners emphasized the importance of common sense and experience. Many medical societies adopted codes of professional ethics and standardized fee tables for specific medical services as a means of unifying the profession, limiting economic competition, establishing professional prerogatives, and excluding irregular practitioners. Physicians also organized scientific societies that sponsored journals and lectures. If little that was original appeared in these journals, they did, at least, provide information about scientific and medical advances in...

Classical Chinese Concepts Of Anatomy

One aspect of Chinese medicine that is likely to seem especially strange to the modern reader is the classical approach to human anatomy. However, if classical Chinese anatomy is properly thought of in terms of function rather than structure, distinctions between anatomy and physiology become irrelevant. Anatomy, in the Western sense, did not form the basis

Learning Theory in Medical Education

For example, it might turn out that medical students can learn certain aspects of human anatomy using an interactive computer-based anatomy tutorial as well as when working one-on-one with an anatomy tutor. If that is the case, and if the computer-based tutorial requires substantially fewer person-hours of instructor time, then it offers greater educational efficiency. Effectiveness, by contrast, refers to the quality of the educational result that is, what the learners actually take away from learning activities. If we better understand how we learn, we should be able to enhance the quality of education we offer.

Organ Systems

Transverse System Striated Muscle

The human body has 11 organ systems (fig. A.11) and an immune system, which is better described as a population of cells than as an organ system. These systems are classified in the following list by their principal functions, but this is an unavoidably flawed classification. Some organs belong to two or more systems for example, the male urethra is part of both the urinary and reproductive systems the pharynx is part of the respiratory and digestive systems and the mammary glands can be considered part of the integumentary and female reproductive systems. Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 39

Human Structure

Bodys Structural Heirarchy

Earlier in this chapter, we observed that human anatomy is studied by a variety of techniques dissection, palpation, and so forth. In addition, anatomy is studied at several levels of detail, from the whole body down to the molecular level. Consider for the moment an analogy to human structure The English language, like the human body, is very complex, yet an endless array of ideas can be conveyed with a limited number of words. All words in English are, in turn, The organism is a single, complete individual. An organ system is a group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion. The human body has 11 organ systems, illustrated in atlas A immediately following this chapter the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and The theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components is called reductionism. First...

Directional Terms

Anatomical Planes

Table A.1 Directional Terms in Human Anatomy Because of the bipedal, upright stance of humans, some directional terms have different meanings for humans than they do for other animals. Anterior, for example, denotes the region of the body that leads the way in normal locomotion. For a four-legged animal such as a cat, this is the head end of the body for a human, however, it is the area of the chest and abdomen. Thus, anterior has the same meaning as ventral for a human but not for a cat. Posterior denotes the region of the body that comes last in normal locomotion the tail end of a cat but the dorsal side (back) of a human. These differences must be kept in mind when dissecting other animals for comparison to human anatomy.

Human Function

Commonest Position The Appendix

Figure 1.10 Variation in Human Anatomy. The left-hand figure in each case depicts the most common anatomy. (a) Variations in stomach shape correlated with body physique. (b) Variations in the position of the appendix. (c) Variations in the bile passages of the liver and gallbladder. Figure 1.10 Variation in Human Anatomy. The left-hand figure in each case depicts the most common anatomy. (a) Variations in stomach shape correlated with body physique. (b) Variations in the position of the appendix. (c) Variations in the bile passages of the liver and gallbladder. Earlier we considered the clinical importance of variations in human anatomy, but physiology is even more variable. Physiological variables differ with sex, age, weight, diet, degree of physical activity, and environment, among other things. Failure to consider such variation leads to medical mistakes such as overmedication of the elderly or medicating women on the basis of research that was done on men. If an introductory...

Anatomy

Pararectal Space Hypogastric Fascia

Physicians are familiar with general human anatomy and expert in their own regions of specialization. Since gynecologic oncologists are often called upon to perform unique and sometimes infrequent procedures in a variety of regions, a review of the different anatomic areas can be helpful. Of course, gynecologic oncologists will usually be operating in the pelvis or called upon as a consultant to other pelvic surgeons. Therefore, a detailed understanding of pelvic anatomy is essential.

Chapter Summary

This chapter has surveyed some of the published vessel segmentation and tracing algorithms in the specific context of retinal fundus images. While many of the models and algorithms are influenced by related work in other areas of human anatomy, such as cardiac and brain images 110 , and dye-injected neuron images 2 , the techniques described in this chapter have been developed specifically in the retinal image context. We have attempted to describe some of the considerations of the many models and algorithms in use, in the context of the desired applications.

Gene Origins

The function of most of the horizontally transferred genes is unclear, although a few may code for basic metabolic enzymes. A notable exception is a gene that codes for an enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAO). Monoamines are neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are needed for neural signaling in the human central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase plays a crucial role in the turnover of these neurotransmitters. How MAO, obtained from bacteria, could have developed such an important role in human physiology is a great mystery.

The Need for Ethics

Yet ethics plays an essential role in the life of every physician, not unlike that of the role a vitamin plays in human physiology. We would be mistaken to suppose that the moral faculty is already so deeply engrained in medical students and residents by the time they matriculate that there is no point attempting to shape it. We would be equally mistaken to suppose that their moral faculties are completely self-sustaining and require no further support and guidance while we focus exclusively on the cognitive and technical aspects of medicine. The ethical perspectives of medical students, residents, and fellows are powerfully shaped by their training experiences, and a curriculum that by ignoring ethics delivers the implicit message that ethics does not matter may exert a profound, if insidious, pernicious effect.

Cell Membrane

Figure 2.1 Typical animal cell showing characteristic organelles and cellular inclusions. The arrangement of the intracellular features and the shape of the cell vary from cell to cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.1 Typical animal cell showing characteristic organelles and cellular inclusions. The arrangement of the intracellular features and the shape of the cell vary from cell to cell. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.) Figure 2.2 Cell membrane. Membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins. Proteins include embedded, or integral proteins, as well as peripheral proteins on a surface of the membrane. Membrane proteins serve a variety of purposes including cell communication and identification. (Reproduced with permission from McKinley and O'Loughlin, Human Anatomy, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, New...

Long Bones

At any stage of development, even when growth is complete, the normal bone is an active, dynamic tissue in which the process of bone formation is balanced by that of bone resorption. This balance is accomplished by the integrated activity of specialized bone cells,i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts,which are enrolled into the process of growth, fracture healing, modeling, and remodeling of the living human skeleton (Resnick et al. 1995). Modeling is the dynamic process by which major adjustments in the size and shape of the bones are produced. The process of modeling, which depends heavily upon the mechanical forces applied to the skeleton, is most prominent in the immature skeleton until adolescence, and results in a net increase in the amount of bone tissue, especially in the sub-periosteal location. Remarkable examples of bone modeling in the tubular bones include (a) drifting of the midshaft, accomplished by endosteal bone resorption and periosteal bone formation and (b) flaring of...

Ivan Ivanovich flies

Hector Und Felicette Weltall

Earlier balloon flights into the upper atmosphere had tested the effects of cosmic rays on rats and cats while significant post-war progress in aeronautics and data recording systems had allowed researchers to obtain a better understanding of human physiology and dynamic stresses on pilots in the air. Drawing their inspiration from related experiments in the United States and the Soviet Union, French scientists became increasingly interested in the effects of weightlessness and cosmic radiation, seeking a better understanding of the impact these and other issues might have on warm-blooded creatures before human beings could venture into space.

Clinical Studies

Human amylin was first administered to humans by Gilbey (Gilbey et al., 1989) and others (Bretherton-Watt et al., 1990 Ghatei et al., 1990 Wilding et al., 1994) working with Bloom at the Hammersmith Hospital in 1989. The material showed no activity in those studies, perhaps consistent, as it turned out, with a lack of effect on glucose disposal in clamp experiments, but also consistent with the propensity of human amylin to precipitate from solution and lose activity. Some of the same authors subsequently observed hypocalcemic activity with human amylin in patients with Paget's disease (Gilbey et al., 1991), an observation that was soon repeated by others (Wimalawansa et al., 1992), illustrating that human amylin could retain biological activity under some conditions. Human amylin (designated AC001) was produced at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc. and was used in several sponsored studies of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 1993-1994 (Cooper et al., 1995 McNally et al., 1994a,b...

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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