Image Processing Ebooks Catalog
Most confocal systems allow capture of digital images. Images should be obtained throughout the depth of the section by scanning at appropriate intervals from the top of the section to the bottom (i.e., the z direction). Images may be reconstructed at appropriate intervals through the cell soma to demonstrate the appearance and disappearance of the immunoreaction product within the cell body. If a typical cell soma has a 10- to 20- im diameter, this can be accomplished with sections at 0.4- im intervals. Most images obtained by confocal microscopy can be imported into the Adobe PhotoShop software and can thus be further refined for presentation.
Further advantages of ratiometric measurement over the use of single-wavelength dyes is that the effects of cell thickness, dye content, or instrumental efficiency that interfere with the interpretation of measurements at single wavelengths are largely eliminated (1). This enables the signal obtained to be accurately calibrated and also enables comparisons to be made between samples and within different areas of the same sample and between different days of experimentation. Combining this powerful ratiometric technique with ultrasensitive low-light-level video cameras or photometers and digital image processing enables the study of both spatial and temporal distribution of ions within single cells (10).
At this stage, the cardiologist locates the catheter head position before and after the pull-back in both angiogram views, and two, three-dimensional points are reconstructed. Note that these points represent the location in space of the center of the first and last IVUS images. Figure 10.38 shows two views of the catheter after finishing the pull-back. Once located, the position of the catheter head in one x-ray projection, the epipolar line, suggests the position of the catheter head in the other view. A local histogram-based image enhancement can be applied to the angiograms (see Figure 10.38) to emphasize the appearance of catheter position.
And false lumen and thrombus formation. A tear in the intima with out avulsion from the underlying layers will be seen as abrupt discontinuity of the surface. However, the tear may not be obvious in an aorta with atherosclerosis. Image optimization by using edge enhancement and imaging with multiple frequency may be necessary for recognition and differentiating classic dissection from atherosclerotic ulcer. A highly mobile undulating flap indicates free flow between the true and false lumen, reentry into the true lumen, and minimal or no thrombosis of the false lumen. Intimal flap moves toward the false lumen in early to midsystole and toward the true lumen in late systole to early diastole. This is because the major flow is still in the true lumen. Limited systolic mobility of the intimal flap generally indicates that the false lumen is more of a blind pouch or column with no reentrant tear or thrombosis of the false lumen distally. On the other hand, movement of the flap toward the...
The first part of this chapter introduced the importance of vascular image processing and prefiltering. The major part of this chapter focused on scale-space ellipsoidal filtering. We presented several experiments and showed that the SNR and CNR for the filtered MIP were far superior to the raw MlPs. Our results were compared with median filtering. We also presented experiments on BBA and compared our algorithm with Alexander et al.'s (recently published). A full discussion was presented on the implementation issues of scale-space ellipsoidal filtering. 15. Berr, T. S., Hurt, N. S., Ayers, C. R., Snell, J. W., and Merickel, M. B., Assessment of the reliability of the determination of carotid artery lumen sizes by quantitative image processing of MR angiograms and imaging, J. Magn. Reson. Imag., Vol. 13, pp. 827-835, 1995. 16. Han, C., Hatsukami, T. S., Hwang, J.-N., and Yuan, C., A fast minimal path active contour model, IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 865-873, June...
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