Family Protostrongylidae

The family consists of 13 clearly related genera distributed mainly among Bovidae (sheep, goats, African antelopes) and Cervidae (deer). About half the known species are members of the genus Protostrongylus, some members of which occur in lagomorphs. Since protostrongylids are predominantly parasites of ruminants it is speculated that they are secondarily adapted to lagomorphs (Anderson, 1982). The family is distinguished from other metastrongyloids by unusually complex gubernacula and telamons...

The Superfamily Diaphanocephaloidea

The diaphanocephaloids are curious bursate nematodes of the digestive tract of terrestrial snakes and, rarely, lizards (Lichtenfels, 1980a). The buccal cavity is large and complex and the oral opening is dorsoventrally expanded, giving the buccal region a characteristic bivalved appearance. The oral opening is sometimes surrounded by a delicate cuticular membrane reminiscent of the corona radiata found in the superfamily Strongyloidea. The superfamily consists of one family...

P lotoris Schwartz 1925

P. lotoris is found in the posterior region of the small intestine of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitis nigra) in North America. The development and transmission of P. lotoris have been investigated by Balasingam (1964a). Eggs were 68-76 X 38-44 mm in size and were in the 8- to 16-cell stage when passed in faeces of the host. In faecal cultures eggs developed and hatched into first-stage larvae within 24 h at 22-24 C. First-stage larvae were 273-358 mm in length. The first moult...

A braziliense de Faria 1910 A ceylanicum Looss 1911

These two species, mainly from dogs and felines, were regarded as conspecific until Biocca (1951) showed they were distinct species. A. braziliense was found in dogs and felines (Felis catis, F. pardus, F. serval) in Brazil and is known from dogs in various warm regions of the world. The eggs and larval stages are similar to those of A. duodenale. A. braziliense is a common cause of cutaneous larva migrans, called 'creeping eruption', resulting from the reaction to third-stage larvae migrating...

O pipiens Walton 1929

Cosmocercoides

O. pipiens is a widely reported species found in the intestine of Anolis carolinensis, Bufo spp., Eumeces fasciatus, Eurycea lucifuga, Hyla spp., Leiolopisma laterale, Pseudacris triseriata, Rana spp., Sceloporus undulatus and Terrapene spp. in North America (Baker, 1987). Baker (1978) studied the development and transmission of this species in Rana sylvatica and Bufo americanus in Ontario, Canada. Eggs were deposited by females in the 8- to 16-cell stage (Fig. 3.6A). Eggs in faeces developed...

O ostertagi Stiles 1892

Commonly known as the medium stomach worm, O. ostertagi is a cosmopolitan parasite ofcattle. Armour and Ogbourne 1982 and Myers and Taylor 1989 regarded it as one of the most important helminth pathogens of cattle in the temperate world it is also known to cause problems in subtropical climates where there is winter rainfall. According to Threlkeld 1946 eggs were 70-84 X 40-50 mm in size. Eggs hatched after 24 h in culture and first-stage larvae were 300-500 mm in length. The first moult...

Family Trichostrongylidae

Obeliscoides Cuniculi

Subfamily Libyostrongylinae Libyostrongylus The development and transmission of the 'wire worm' of the proventriculus of the ostrich Struthio camelus were described by Theiler and Robertson 1915 in South Africa. Eggs were ovoid and 59-74 X 36-44 mm in size. Eggs required 3-4 days to pass from the stomach of the host and appear in the faeces. During this period eggs developed from the one-cell or two-cell stage to the morula stage. Eggs developed at 27-28 C and first-stage larvae hatched and...

Family Metastrongylidae

The three cosmopolitan species attributed to the family belong in the genus Metastrongylus syn. Choerostrongylus which is characterized by a pair of massive trilobed lips, long filiform spicules and an atypical bursa. The development and transmission of M. apri, M. pudendotectus and M. salmi of domestic pigs and wild boars have been investigated. The three species often occur together in the bronchi and bronchioles mainly of the diaphragmatic lobe of the same individual host Ewing and Todd,...

Subfamily Syngaminae

Members of the subfamily occur in the respiratory system of their hosts. Two genera occur in mammals Mammomonogamus and Rodentogamus and three in birds Syngamus, Boydinema and Cyathostoma . Species in mammals produce eggs devoid of opercula whereas eggs of the species in birds are operculate. Eggs pass from the respiratory system to the glottis, are swallowed and passed in faeces of the host. Development to the third and infective stage takes place in the egg and the first two larval stages...

The Superfamily Trichostrongyloidea

The Trichostrongyloidea is by far the largest superfamily among the bursate nematodes. Divided into 14 families and 24 subfamilies by Durette-Desset and Chabaud 1977, 1981 and Durette-Desset 1983 the group is distinguished from the hookworms and the strongyles by the fact that the buccal capsule is absent or greatly reduced and lips and corona radiata are vestigial or absent. The lateral lobes of the bursa are highly developed although the dorsal lobe may be considerably reduced. The host range...

Family Heligmosomidae

The related families Heligmosomidae and Heligmonellidae have complex cuticular ridges, collectively known as the synlophe, which attach the nematode to villae as they coil about these structures in the intestine Durette-Desset, 1971 . In the Heligmosomidae the axis of orientation of the ridges is subfrontal and in the Heligmonellidae the axis is generally oblique Durette-Desset, 1983 . The female in the heligmosomids has a terminal caudal spine lacking in females of the heligmonellids and there...

Subfamily Dictyocaulinae

The subfamily contains Bronchonema and the well-studied and important genus Dictyocaulus of ruminants and horses. Three well-known species of the genus have been investigated - two in ungulates and one in equines. Members of the genus are medium-sized and occur in the bronchi and trachea, where they are associated with bronchitis, giving rise to a clinical syndrome including coughing known in cattle and sheep in the UK as husk for a brief history of husk see Allan and Johnson, 1960 . Eggs are...

Family Chabertiidae

Chabertiids are medium-sized strongyles found in artiodactyls, macropodids, rodents and primates. Subfamily Chabertiinae Castorstrongylus C. castoris is a parasite of the colon of beaver Castor canadensis in North America. Romanov 1969 reported that eggs were 94-124 X 48-59 mm in size and in the eight-cell stage when oviposited. First-stage larvae appeared in eggs in 5 6 days at 18-25 C and two moults occurred, in 8 10 and 15 16 days. Third-stage larvae which hatched retained the cuticles of...

Oesophagostomum

Oesophagostomum

Members of the genus, known as nodular worms, are common parasites of the large intestine of pigs, ruminants, primates and rodents. Those in domestic animals are considered significant pathogens. The buccal capsule is relatively reduced and thin-walled. The cuticle of the cephalic end is inflated and a transverse groove is usually present near the excretory pore this groove tends to offset the cephalic end from the rest of the body of the parasite. The genus is rich in species and is divided...

S dentatus Diesing 1839

Stephanurus Dentatus

S. dentatus occurs in capsules in perirenal fat and in the walls of the ureter and adjacent tissues of swine. Capsules containing adult worms communicate by channels with the ureters or the renal pelvis, and eggs of the parasite can pass into the urine and leave the body of the host Fig. 3.4 . According to Alicata 1935b eggs were 91-114 X 53-65 mm in size and composed of 32-64 cells when passed in urine. Eggs developed to first-stage larvae and hatched in 1-2 days. First-stage larvae moulted in...

Family Syngamidae

Syngamids, along with the Deletrocephalidae of Rhea, have a hexagonal oral opening. Corona radiata and lips are absent. Unlike the deletrocephalids, syngamids lack a dorsal gutter and a perioral groove Lichtenfels, 1980b . Syngamids occur mainly in the respiratory system of birds and mammals, but one species Stephanurus dentatus is associated with the urinary system of swine and another Archeostrongylus italicus occurs in the intestine of porcupines Hystrix cristata . The development and...

The Superfamily Strongyloidea

Members of the superfamily have large, complex buccal capsules, often with a corona radiata a series of leaf-like structures on the border of the labial region , and are mainly gut parasites although a few species occur in the respiratory or urinary systems Lichtenfels, 1980b . The superfamily is divided into the families Strongylidae including the large strongyles of equines , Chabertiidae including the nodular worms, Oesophagostomum spp. , Syngamidae including the gapeworms of birds and a...

The Superfamily Metastrongyloidea

The Metastrongyloidea is a moderately sized superfamily of bursate nematodes consisting of about 181 species classified into 46 genera and seven families Anderson, 1978, 1982 . The superfamily is confined to mammals and its species are most common in Artiodactyla 14 genera , Carnivora 14 , Marsupialia seven and Cetacea Odontoceti six . A number of genera occur in the Insectivora five , Rodentia three and Primates ten . Hares and rabbits Lagomorpha share Protostrongylus with the artiodactyls....

The Superfamily Ancylostomatoidea

Uncinaria Lucasi

Hookworms occur in the small intestine of mammals. Like species of the Strongyloidea, they have large, highly cuticularized buccal capsules provided with teeth or cutting plates Chabaud, 1974 which they use to attach themselves to the intestinal mucosa of the host. However, unlike species of strongyles, the buccal region is never hexagonal in transverse section and a corona radiata is absent. Also many hookworms, unlike strongyles, infect the host mainly through skin penetration. The...

Order Strongylida the Bursate Nematodes

The order includes the bursate nematodes, divided into five well-defined superfamilies. The Diaphanocephaloidea is a peculiar minor superfamily with two genera in lizards and snakes. The cephalic extremity is in the form of two lateral jaw-like structures. The hookworms Ancylostomatoidea and the strongyles Strongyloidea have large, globular buccal capsules which enable them to attach to the intestinal mucosa and suck the blood of the host. Buccal capsules are absent in trichostrongyles...