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For What Purposes Are Adults Given Intelligence Tests

It is clear that the WAIS-R and WAIS-III are widely used in the field of assessment today, but why are these and other intelligence tests typically administered to adults Harrison et al. (1988) asked that question specifically of a group of 277 clinical psychologists. In a survey, respondents were asked to rank seven purposes for which they would administer an intelligence test. The number 1 purpose was to measure the potential or cognitive capacity of a person. Table 1.2 lists the seven purposes and how important respondents felt each was. Although nearly 40-50 of psychologists ranked educational and vocational placement or interventions as a purpose for assessing adults, very few felt these are the main reasons for conducting an assessment (6-17 ). Clearly, the data show that clinicians think that the most important reasons for assessing adults are to measure cognitive potential, obtain clinically relevant information, and assess functional integrity of the brain.

Introduction to the Assessment of Adolescent and Adult Intelligence

Wechsler's Scales 3 Clinical Relevance of Theory 3 A Short History of IQ Tests 3 The Binet-Simon Scales 4 Terman's Stanford-Binet 4 The World War I Tests 5 Wechsler's Creativity 6 Surveys of Test Usage for Adults 7 Has Test Use Changed over the Years 8 Test Usage of1,500 Psychologists and Neuropsychologists 8 How Frequently Are Tests Used 9 Administration Time and Implications for Reimbursement 10 For What Purposes Are Adults Given Intelligence Tests 10 Conclusions 10 Validity of the IQ Construct for Adolescents and Adults 11

Additional Measures of Adolescent and Adult IQ

CHAPTER 13 Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) 522 Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) 641 Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) 645 Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT) 647 Brief Tests of Either Nonverbal or Verbal Ability 650 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Third Edition (PPVT-III) 650 General Abilities Measure for Adults (GAMA) 652 Matrix Analogies Test (MAT) 654 Brief Tests for Specialized Abilities 655

Termans Stanford Binet

Lewis Terman was one of several people in the United States who translated and adapted the Binet-Simon scale for use in the United States, publishing a tentative revision (Terman & Childs, 1912) 4 years before releasing his painstakingly developed and carefully standardized Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale (Terman, 1916). This landmark test, soon known simply as the Stanford-Binet, squashed competing tests developed earlier by Goddard, Kuhlmann, Wallin, and Yerkes. Terman's success was undoubtedly due in part to heeding the advice of practitioners whose demand for more and more accurate diagnoses raised the whole question of the accurate placing of tests in the scale and the accurate evaluation of the responses made by the child (Pintner & Patterson, 1925, p. 11). But, like Binet, Terman (1916) saw intelligence tests useful primarily for the detection of mental deficiency or superiority in children and for the identification of feeblemindedness in...

The World War I Tests

The infant field of adult assessment grew rapidly with the onset of World War I, particularly after U.S. entry into the war in 1917 (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997 Vane & Motta, 1984). Psychologists saw with increasing clarity the applications of intelligence tests for selecting officers and placing enlisted men in different types of service, apart from their generation-old use for identifying the mentally unfit. Under the leadership of Robert Yerkes and the American Psychological Association, the most innovative psychologists of the day helped translate Binet's tests to a group format. Arthur Otis, Terman's student, was instrumental in leading the creative team that developed the Army Alpha, essentially a group-administered Stanford-Binet, and the Army Yerkes (1917) opposed Binet's age-scale approach and favored a point-scale methodology, one that advocates selection of tests of specified, important functions rather than a set of tasks that fluctuates greatly with age level and...

Lezaks Proposed Alternative to the IQ

Lezak wants examiners to treat the results of an intelligence test as a multiplicity of scores representing an enchanting array of disparate abilities. Eliminate IQ from one's vocabulary, and study the peaks and valleys in the scaled score profile. The good part of her suggestion is that she is able to damn the IQ concept without cavalierly discarding the instruments altogether. The bad part is that her suggestion, if followed assiduously, represents a return to a clinical interpretation approach that was once popular but is now out of favor. That approach treated each subtest as a discrete entity, with each task a measure of a long string of traits and abilities. Books typifying that approach often devoted a separate chapter to each of Wechsler's subtests, with few chapters devoted to their integration (e.g., Glasser & Zimmerman, 1967).

Overview and Description

The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT, Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990) is a brief, individually administered test of verbal and nonverbal intelligence for individuals ages 4 to 90 years. The K-BIT includes two subtests Vocabulary (both Expressive Vocabulary and Definitions) and Matrices. The Vocabulary subtest measures verbal, school-related skills via the assessment of word knowledge and verbal concept formation. Matrices measures nonverbal reasoning by assessing the ability to perceive relationships and complete analogies. Administration time for the K-BIT is quite short, taking approximately 15 to 30 minutes to administer.

The Future of Short Forms

Reynolds et al.'s (1983) admonition to use short forms instead of brief tests like the Slosson was true in the 1980s, but it is no longer true. There are now several excellent brief tests available that have much more to recommend them than any short form can possibly match, most notably the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI Psychological Corporation, 1999), Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), and Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000). James Kaufman and Alan Kaufman (in press) have appealed to clinicians and researchers to stop developing and stop using short forms of intelligence tests. We endorse that position, for reasons

Stanford Binet IV and the Kaufman Tests

Results on two tests developed by the Kaufmans have shown similar patterns in Caucasian-African American group differences. On the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT Kaufman & Kaufman, 1993) without an education adjustment differences between Caucasians (N 1,547) and African Americans (N 241) were 11-12 IQ points at ages 11-25 years, and 13-14 IQ points at ages 25-94 years, on the Crystallized, Fluid, and Composite Scales (effect sizes ranging from .73-.93 SD) (Kaufman, McLean, & Kaufman, 1995). After covarying for educational attainment, the differences reduced to 8-9 points for the Crystallized and Fluid IQs at ages 11-24 and to 10 points for ages 25-94, corresponding to effect sizes of 0.58 SD and 0.68 SD, respectively (A. Kaufman, McLean, et al., 1995). Differences were similar on both the Crystallized and Fluid Scales for both age groups, both with and without an educational adjustment A. Kaufman, McLean, et al. (1995) did not report an education-adjusted KAIT...

Considerations for Using Wechsler IQs in Gifted Assessment

The traditional use of intelligence test scores as the sole criterion for gifted functioning has been highly criticized. In the public schools, rigid criterion scores are frequently used to enable students with IQs of 131 to enter a gifted program but deny entrance to those with IQs of 129. Similar rigid cut-offs for cognitive test scores may be used for entrance to honors classes, advanced placement, or other activities for exceptional adolescents and adults. Cognitive test scores may be emphasized while other evidence, such as outstanding school achievement or creative accomplishment, is ignored. Abusive practices such as these have led some professionals who work with the gifted to argue that identification of gifted individuals by using intelligence test scores is a serious mistake (e.g., Sternberg, 1986 Treffinger & Renzulli, 1986). They argue that intelligence tests measure only one aspect of giftedness, academic giftedness, rather than other aspects, such as creative giftedness...

Counterbalanced Waisiiiwisciii Study of a Normal Sample

The Psychological Corporation (1997, Table 4.3) presented data from a carefully counterbalanced study of 184 16-year-olds of average intelligence who were administered the WAIS-III and WISC-III with a time interval of 2 to 12 weeks. Correlations between Verbal IQs were .88, Performance IQs .78, and Full Scale IQs .88. Mean Verbal IQs and Performance IQs were virtually identical (0.5 points different), with the WAIS-III producing mean Full Scale IQs that were quite similar to WISC-III IQs (0.7 points different). Because the WAIS-III was standardized about 5 to 6 years later than the WISC-III, one would have predicted lower WAIS-III IQs by about 1K points, based on Flynn's (1998) analyses of changes in intelligence test performance across generations. However, that prediction was

Use of the CHC Theory as the Wj Iii Design Blueprint

By the time the WJ III revision began, certain WJ-R Gf-Gc cognitive clusters were suggested to be too narrow (i.e., inadequate construct representation) by Carroll's (1993) work, Woodcock's (1990) cross-battery confirmatory factor analysis of all the major intelligence batteries, and the narrow ability analysis of the WJ-R (and all other major intelligence test batteries) (McGrew, 1997 McGrew & Flanagan, 1998). For example, the WJ-R Ga cluster was com-

The Role of the Slosson Shipley Hartford and Other Early Brief Tests

Unfortunately, for years, many developers of brief intelligence tests did not heed this lesson. Several tried to meet clinicians' needs for brief intelligence tests, but their products were often inferior some test developers believed that the word brief was supposed to apply to the test construction efforts as well as the administration time. When brief intellectual assessment was called for, some clinicians, perhaps naively, administered short tests with imaginary psychometric properties some examiners even used the Bender-Gestalt to assess IQ, while many others relied on the IQs generated by the Slosson Intelligence Test (Slosson, 1982), a brief, mostly verbal, test organized in the format of the old Binet. The 1963 version of the Slosson was quite popular despite its use of the outmoded ratio IQ the restandardized, but not revised, 1981 norms edition continued to offer this psychometric dinosaur, although tables of standard scores became available subsequent to Richard Slosson's...

Helpful Standardized Measures

A person's level of general intelligence has nothing to do with whether they have ADHD. Russell Barkley observed that ADHD children are likely to represent the entire spectrum of intellectual development, with some being gifted while others are normal, slow learners, or even mildly intellectually retarded (1998, p. 98). An individual's verbal IQ, performance IQ, or full-scale IQ score can tell nothing about whether they do or do not suffer from ADHD. Yet some IQ tests, for example, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV), introduced in 2003, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, third edition (WAIS-III), available since 1997, have some subtests that are fairly sensitive to impairments in executive functions. Comparing a person's performance on these subtests can offer information useful for the assessment of ADHD.

Rationale And Justification For Categorical Model

However, absence of a discrete, qualitative point of demarcation does not suggest the absence of meaningful distinctions. Mental retardation is currently defined dimensionally as a level of intelligence below an intelligence quotient (IQ) of approximately 70 (APA, 1980, 2000). This point of demarcation does not carve nature at a discrete joint. It is an arbitrary point of demarcation along a continuous distribution, but the arbitrariness of this point of demarcation does not suggest that the disorder of mental retardation is illusory, invalid, or trivial. Persons with IQs lower than 70 do suffer from a wide variety of quite significant and meaningful impairments secondary to their limited levels of intelligence, and it is very helpful and meaningful to identify a specific point of demarcation at which one would or should provide professional intervention to address these impairments (Zachar, 2000).

Woodcock JohnsonRevised WJR

The WJ-COG was enhanced by the addition of new tests and clusters grounded in the Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc theory of cognitive abilities. The WJ-R COG was the first of the major intelligence test batteries to utilize a multiple intelligences approach with several (seven) empirically supported cognitive ability factors. The WJ-R ACH was extended from 10 to 14 tests with several new tests of reading, written language, and mathematics added. Broad achievement clusters were supplemented with subdomain clusters (e.g., Basic Reading Skills and Reading Comprehension) in reading, math, and written language. Parallel, alternative forms (Forms A & B) were also introduced to the Tests of Achievement. A complete Spanish version of both the WJ-R COG and WJ-R ACH were made available in 1996 (Woodcock & Munoz-Sandoval, 1996a, 1996b).

Prediction of Job Performance

Average correlations between general intelligence and job proficiency are traditionally in the .20s (Ghiselli, 1966, 1973). However, because the predictors and criteria are typically restricted in variability due to selection factors and other practical limitations of test validation in industrial settings, some have argued that such coefficients require statistical correction to reflect more accurately the true relationship between IQ and job success (Hunter & Hunter, 1984). For the purpose here (i.e., to determine the validity of the theoretical construct underlying intelligence tests), the corrected values seem more appropriate. Jensen's (1980) analysis of some of the same data summarized by Hunter (1986) presents a more sobering view of the ability of intelligence tests to predict job performance and training success. Coefficients reported by Hunter were corrected for restriction of range and, usually, for attenuation as well these corrections inflate the correlations by...

Response to the Critics

Heritabilities for individuals based on their WISC-R or WAIS-R Full Scale IQs (Wadsworth, Olson, Pennington, & DeFries, 2000). The heritability was .43 for those with IQs below 100 and .72 for those with IQs 100 and greater, a significant difference. Wadsworth et al. concluded The results of the current study support the hypothesis of a differential genetic etiology of RD as a function of IQ, suggesting that genetic influences may be more important as a cause of RD among children with higher IQ scores They suggest that knowing a child's IQ may tell us something about the causes of the reading deficit, which could possibly help focus intervention and remediation efforts (p. 198). ligence. These LD experts show no awareness of the many theoretically derived intelligence tests that offer more meaningful divisions of global IQ than Wechsler's armchair dichotomy, created more than 60 years ago. IQ AS A Measure OF g. The array of studies used to criticize the IQ construct for LD assessment...

Relationship of IQ to Education

For children's intelligence tests, correlations between IQ and school achievement are among the best evidences of validity, but those coefficients are less valuable for adult tests. The best arguments for the validity of an adult test are the relationships between IQ and formal education and between IQ and occupational level (a variable that correlates substantially with years of schooling Kaufman, 1990). Success in school is a key task of children and adolescents life accomplishments are the goals of an adult. Logically, people who score higher on a so-called intelligence test should advance higher within the formal education hierarchy and should assume positions within the more prestigious occupations. Which is cause and which is effect is not relevant to this point. Perhaps individuals score higher on IQ tests because of what they learn in school perhaps they proceed to higher levels of education because they are smart to be

Urban Rural Residence Differences

Urban versus rural residence IQ discrepancies gradually declined from the 1930s to late 1970s the urban superiority on the old Stanford-Binet at ages 2-18 years ranged from 6 to 12 points for different age groups tested in the 1930s (McNemar, 1942). For children aged 5 to 15 tested on the WISC in the late 1940s, the urban advantage was The best explanation of the steady reduction, and perhaps elimination, of residence differences over the past 50 years is the impact of mass media on people living anywhere in the United States. Television and other means of communication, along with improved educational facilities and opportunities and the advent of the Internet, have ended the relative isolation of people living in rural areas, making the kinds of facts and problems assessed by intelligence tests readily accessible to almost everyone.

Standardization of the Wb I Wais Waisr and Waisiii

Although the W-B I sample (which ranged from ages 7 to 70) included males and females, it was not systematically stratified by gender. The W-B I adult normative population was roughly stratified by education level, but not occupational group. Hence, the W-B I was stratified by age and education, but not on variables that today are considered essential for an intelligence test gender, race, geographic region, occupation, and urban versus rural residence. Yet, the stratification on age was an important contribution to psychomet-rics, because the practice for a long time was to treat all individuals over 16 years as constituting a single age group (Wechsler, 1958, p. 86). In addition, the choice of education as a rough stratification variable was a good one because of its correlations in the .50s to low .70s with IQ (Mat-arazzo, 1972 Reynolds et al., 1987).

High Average and Gifted Intellectual Functioning Full Scale IQ of 110

Gifted individuals have historically been identified by a cutoff score on an intelligence test (Sparrow & Gurland, 1998). Although this means of identification has recognizable problems such as cultural bias (Tyerman, 1986), ceiling effects (Harrington, 1982 Kaplan, 1992 Kaufman, 1993b), and an overemphasis on speed (Kaufman, 1992 Sternberg, 1982), psychologists typically do conduct an intellectual assessment if an individual (typically a child or adolescent) is

Appropriateness of the New Brief Tests for African Americans and Hispanics

Skills are perceived to be an unfair measure of intelligence, we suggest giving only the nonverbal portions of the WASI or WRIT (both of which include two nonverbal subtests), or administering one of the well-constructed nonverbal brief tests discussed later in this chapter (e.g., General Abilities Measure for Adults) (GAMA Naglieri & Bardos, 1997). Another good alternative is either the two-subtest (Abbreviated Battery) or four-subtest (Standard Battery) version of the excellent Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (Bracken & McCallum, 1998).

IQ Tasks Are Samples of Behavior and Are Not Exhaustive

From the one-on-one assessment of a finite number of skills and processing strategies. Intelligence tests should, therefore, be routinely supplemented by other formal and informal measures of cognitive, clinical, and neuropsychological functioning to facilitate the assessment of mental functioning as part of psychodiagnosis. The global IQ on any test, no matter how comprehensive, does not equal a person's total capacity for intellectual accomplishment. Standardized administration and scoring means conducting an experiment with N 1 every time an examiner tests someone on an intelligence test. For the results of this experiment to be meaningful, the experimenter-examiner must adhere precisely to the wording in the manual, give appropriate probes as defined in the instructions, time each relevant response diligently, and score each item exactly the way comparable responses were scored during the normative procedure. Following these rules prevents examiners from applying a flexible...

The AntiIQ Sentiments

Vellutino et al. (2000) concede that, there may be something important about a child's IQ, particularly with respect to how it interacts with that child's emotional and behavioral response to failure (p. 236). They state further that, because of the widespread belief that IQ and reading ability are related, it might well be the case that more resources would be brought to bear to support the reading development of a child who scored high on an intelligence test as compared with a child who scored in the average or low average range on the test (p. 236). In other words, they don't think too much of IQ tests, but they may have indirect value either clinically or because of people's mis-perceptions about its importance. who read more gain the cognitive skills and information relevant to the IQ test and consequently attain higher IQ scores. Children with reading problems read less and, therefore, fail to gain the skills and information necessary for higher scores on IQ tests (Siegel,...

On Gender Ethnicity Urban Rural Residence and Socioeconomic Status

Variables that serve to stratify the samples of intelligence tests. We explore the relationships of IQs and other scores to the variables of gender, race, urban versus rural residence, occupational group, and education level, focusing on data obtained on individually administered clinical tests of intelligence for adolescents and adults, most notably the WAIS-III, WAIS-R, Stanford-Binet IV, and Kaufman tests (e.g., Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test or KAIT).

Short History of IQ Tests

Giftedness when he developed what is often considered the first comprehensive individual test of intelligence (Kaufman, 2000a). But despite Gal-ton's role as the father of the testing movement (Shouksmith, 1970), he did not succeed in constructing a true intelligence test. His measures of simple reaction time, strength of squeeze, or keenness of sight proved to assess sensory and motor abilities, skills that relate poorly to mental ability, and that are far removed from the type of tasks that constitute contemporary intelligence tests.


However, the test in multiple-choice format, though still valuable, does not approach the contribution of the task when subjects have to compose their own responses. Indeed, one of the most gratifying things about the general comprehension test, when given orally, is the rich clinical data which it furnishes about the subject. It is frequently of value in diagnosing psychopathic personalities, sometimes suggests the presence of schizophrenic trends (as revealed by perverse and bizarre responses), and almost always tells us something about the subject's social and cultural background (Wechsler, 1958, p. 67). In selecting questions for the W-B I Comprehension subtest, Wechsler (1958) borrowed some material from the Army Alpha and the Army Memoirs and included a few questions that were also on the old Stanford-Binet, probably because they were borrowed from the same source (p. 68). He was not bothered by overlap because of what he perceived to be a very small...

KAIT Theory

Alan and Nadeen Kaufman focused on several goals during the development of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT).1 The Kaufmans wanted to construct a test battery based on intellectual theory that would account for developmental changes in intelligence, and also wanted their test to provide important clinical and neuropsychological information for those tested with the instrument (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1993).

Human Exposures

Since the Minamata episode, documented cases of MeHg exposure have occurred in Canada, Peru, the Faroe Islands, the Seychelles Islands, New Zealand, the Amazon Basin, and Iraq. With the exception of the Iraqi poisoning incident, in which exposure was through the consumption of bread made with grain treated with MeHg to prevent the growth of fungus, exposure occurred through the consumption of contaminated seafood. During some of these outbreaks, data were collected on blood, hair, and cord serum mercury levels, and longitudinal investigations into the potential effects of exposure on measures of intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and cognitive abilities were assessed (e.g., performance on the Boston Naming Test, Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, California Verbal Learning Test). In Iraq, prenatal MeHg exposure was linked to delays in reaching developmental milestones 110 . The Faroe Islands 73, 74 and New Zealand cohorts 36 indicated that prenatal MeHg exposure was associated...


Like the WASI, the K-BIT assesses a wide age range (4 to 90), which is especially useful when retesting needs to be completed across age groups that typically require different tests for an assessment (e.g., the WISC-III at age 12 versus the WAIS-III at age 18 or the K-ABC at age 11 and the KAIT at age 20). The small practice effect for all ages, and especially for adults ages 20-89, facilitates interpretation of the retest data as well as changes in intellectual functioning from the first to the second testing. The K-BIT subtests measure similar constructs as major intelligence tests, which makes the test translate well to widely used intelligence tests. The format of the K-BIT is well designed and logically laid out, which leads to smooth administration (Jirsa, 1994). The K-BIT subtests do not require motor responses, so the test is good for individuals with physical impairments. The scoring of all items is objective and straightforward and the scoring process is clearly presented...

The General Factor g

The generally higher g loadings for the WAISIII than the WISC-III represent an age-related trend wherein the same Wechsler task seems to be more dependent on general intellectual ability for adults than for children and adolescents. This tendency was also noted in the 1977 edition of the Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Battery (Kaufman & O'Neal, 1988a) and the Stanford-Binet, Fourth

Global Scales

Non-Wechsler tests have likewise yielded very small gender differences on their global scales for adult samples. At ages 17-94 years on the KAIT (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1993), less than 1 IQ point separated the education-adjusted IQs earned by 716 men and 784 women on the Fluid and Crystallized Scales (Kaufman & Horn, 1996), as shown in Table 4.1. Also, at ages 12-23 on the Stanford-Binet IV (Thorndike et al., 1986b, Table 4.5), the standard-score differences between 800 males and 926 females was 1 point or less for the Composite and for three of the four area scores (females scored 2.2 points higher on Short-term Memory).

Digit Symbol Coding

The Digit Symbol or Substitution Test is one of the oldest and best established of all psychological tests. It is to be found in a large variety of intelligence scales, and its wide popularity is fully merited (Wechsler, 1958, p. 81). The W-B I Digit Symbol subtest was taken from the Army Beta, the only change being the reduction in response time from 2 minutes to 1J4 minutes to avoid a pileup of perfect scores. For the WAIS, the number of symbols to be copied was increased by about one third, although the response time remained unchanged.

Wechslers Creativity

David Wechsler assembled a test battery in the mid-1930s that comprised subtests developed primarily by Binet and World War I psychologists. His Verbal Scale was essentially a Yerkes point-scale adaptation of Stanford-Binet tasks his Performance Scale, like other similar nonverbal batteries of the 1920s and 1930s (Cornell & Coxe, 1934 Pintner & Patterson, 1925), was a near replica of the tasks and items making up the individually administered Army Performance Scale Examination. While others hoped intelligence tests would be psychometric tools to subdivide retarded individuals into whatever number of categories was currently in vogue, Wechsler saw the tests as dynamic clinical instruments. While others looked concretely at intelligence tests as predictors of school success or guides to occupational choice, Wechsler looked abstractly at the tests as a mir Wechsler was less inclined to wait a generation for data to accumulate. He followed his clinical instincts and not only advocated the...

KAIT Case Study

Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) Kaufman Functional Academic Skills Test (K-FAST) Jeff was administered both the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), which are individually administered tests of a person's intellectual ability and cognitive strengths and weaknesses (scores from all tests are listed in Table 13.19). The WAIS-III groups an individual's abilities into two global areas verbal and nonverbal. The most global measures of Jeff's abilities, the Verbal IQ of 85, Performance IQ of 73, and Full Scale IQ of 77 do not provide the most meaningful estimate of his abilities because of the variability within the subtests and indexes that comprise these IQs. Significant scatter was present in both sets of subtests comprising Jeff's verbal and nonverbal abilities. For example, on the Verbal scale, his scores showed discrepant...


A model for the future might be provided by one of the more well-established diagnoses, mental retardation. A dimensional classification of mental disorders is viewed by some as a radical departure, but DSM-IV already includes a strong precedent. The point of demarcation for the diagnosis of mental retardation is an arbitrary, quantitative distinction along the normally distributed levels of hierarchically and multifactorially defined intelligence. The current point of demarcation is an intelligence quotient of 70, along with a clinically significant level of impairment. This point of demarcation is arbitrary in the sense that it does not carve nature at a discrete joint, but it was not randomly or mindlessly chosen (Haslam, 2002). It is

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