Neuroprotective Strategies

Contents

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Mechanisms of Ischemic Cell Death 1

1.2.1 Excitotoxicity and Ionic Imbalance 3

1.2.2 Oxidative and Nitrative Stress 3

1.2.3 Apoptosis 4

1.2.4 Inflammation 6

1.2.5 Peri-infarct Depolarizations 7

1.3 Grey Matter Versus White Matter Ischemia . ... 8

1.4 The Neurovascular Unit 8

1.5 Neuroprotection 10

1.6 Stroke Neuroprotective Clinical Trials:

Lessons from Past Failures 10

1.7 Identifying the Ischemic Penumbra 12

1.8 Combination Neuroprotective Therapy 13

1.9 Ischemic Pre-conditioning 13

1.10 Nonpharmaceutical Strategies for Neuroprotection 14

1.10.1 Magnesium 14

1.10.2 Albumin Infusion 14

1.10.3 Hypothermia 14

1.10.4 Induced Hypertension 15

1.10.5 Hyperoxia 15

1.11 Prophylactic and Long-term Neuroprotection . . 16

1.12 Conclusion 16

References 17

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