Anatomy and Physiology

Hemorrhoids are cushions of vascular tissue that are present from birth and are therefore considered normal anatomy. Internal hemorrhoids arise from the superior hemorrhoidal vascular plexus cephalad to the dentate line and are covered by mucosa. External hemorrhoids are dilations of the inferior hemorrhoidal plexus. Located below the dentate line, they are covered with anoderm and perianal skin. Because these plexuses communicate, a combination of external and internal hemorrhoid (mixed hemorrhoids, Figure 92-1) is often seen.

There are three major hemorrhoidal cushions, which appear in the left lateral, right anterior, and right posterior positions; however, intervening minor hemorrhoidal complexes may obscure this order. Although the exact role of hemorrhoidal cushions has yet to be defined, it is generally accepted that these vascular cushions contribute to continence by partially occluding the anus. Additionally, they may protect the anal canal during defecation.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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