Anil B NagarMD and Fred S GorelickMD

Acute pancreatitis is a clinical syndrome of pancreatic inflammation with discrete episodes of abdominal pain and elevations in serum pancreas enzyme levels. Inciting factors result in a cascade of events, beginning with the intra-acinar activation of zymogens, generation of harmful cytokines and other pro-inflammatory mediators, and ischemia, which result in tissue injury. Patients usually present with severe abdominal pain and elevation of the amylase and lipase. Most attacks of acute pancreatitis are mild and resolve without therapy or complications. Severe pancreatitis is seen in 10 to 20% of cases and results in complications including necrosis, infection, abscesses and pseudocysts, a systemic inflammatory response, and organ failure. Patients with severe disease may have a mortality rate of up to 30%. After an attack of acute pancreatitis, there is usually full recovery of function, unless there is underlying chronic pancreatitis. Early in the course of acute pancreatitis the clinician should predict the severity of disease so that therapy may be directed to patients with severe disease and possibly reduce complications. There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis; supportive care, fluid resuscitation and treatment of complications are the foundation of management.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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