Basic Paradigms of Oncologic Management

The role of radiation therapy is well established in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies in some anatomical sites and is evolving in others. With the exception of various GI presentations of lymphoma, localized presentations of anal cancer, and selected patients with esophageal and rectal cancer, most GI malignancies will require surgical resection to negative margins to have a meaningful chance of cure. For many apparently localized presentations, surgery alone proves to be insufficient to effect cure, particularly for more advanced lesions (stage T3 or T4) or extensive lymph node involvement. In such settings, the use of radiotherapy naturally combines with surgery, given preoperatively or postoperatively. In both preoperative and postoperative settings, radiotherapy has long been combined with chemotherapeutic agents that have been shown to enhance radiotherapeutic efficacy (radiosensitization).

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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