Carlos G MicamesMD Michael F ByrneMD and John BaillieMB ChB FRCP

Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a frequently encountered problem, accounting for 24% of all GI bleeding events. It is sometimes defined as hemorrhage arising distal to the ligament of Treitz, which includes both small bowel and colonic sources. However, the vast majority of cases originate from the colon. Although diagnostic methods for localizing bleeding have dramatically improved during the past 20 years, they are not universally successful or reliable. In fact, as many as 8 to 12% of patients fail to have the precise origin and location of bleeding identified despite an exhaustive diagnostic examination. Bleeding can be occult, slow, moderate, or severe and life threatening. This chapter will focus on clinical presentation, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of severe colonic bleeding. There is a separate chapter on occult bleeding that concentrates on the small bowel.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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