Cestodes Tapeworms

Six tapeworms, three large and three small, commonly infect humans. The large tapeworms include Taenia sagi-nata (beef tapeworm, up to 25 m in length), Taenia solium (pork tapeworm, up to 7 m), and Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm, up to 10 m). Infection with the large tapeworms occurs by eating raw or undercooked beef, pork, or brackish or freshwater fish, respectively. Infection with these tapeworms is generally asymptomatic or occasionally vague GI symptoms or systemic symptoms occur. The small tapeworms are Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm, 25 to 40 mm), Hymenolepis dimunata (rodent tapeworm, 20 to 60 cm), and Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm, 10 to 70 cm). A light burden of these small tapeworms is generally asymptomatic, whereas a heavy burden may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and malaise. Diagnosis is made by stool examination for worm segments or eggs.

For treatment of all cestodes, the drug of choice is praziquantel and an alternative is niclosamide (not available in the United States). Praziquantel in a single dose of 10 mg/kg achieves a 99% cure for T. saginata, T. solium and D. latum, and a single dose of 25 mg/kg achieves a 95% cure for H. nana. Praziquantel is also effective for H. dimunuta and D. caninum, but cure rates are not known. Niclosamide, which is very well tolerated, needs to be taken on an empty stomach and chewed completely; it is taken as a single dose for T. saginata, D. latum, and T. solium, is less effective than praziquantal for H. nana and requires a 5 to 7 day course for treatment of H. dimunata and D. caninum.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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