Cholangiocarcinomas

Cholangiocarcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ACs) arising from cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile duct apparatus, and occur in approximately 8 to 13% of PSC patients. Because the biliary tree is both intrahepatic and extrahepatic, cholangiocarcinomas likewise may arise within the liver parenchyma or from the extrahepatic bile ducts. Cholangiocarcinomas arising within the hepatic parenchyma often present as intrahepatic mass lesions, whereas cancers developing along the extrahepatic ducts cause mechanical biliary obstruction. For reasons unexplained, the extrahepatic ductal cholangiocarcinomas frequently involve the hilum of the liver, the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts. These perihilar ductal cholan-giocarcinomas, therefore, frequently present with biliary obstruction of one or both lobes of the liver. Both forms of cholangiocarcinoma may occur in PSC, although the perihilar ductal form is the most common.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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