Clinical Presentations

Some drugs cause predictable liver disease, which is normally dose dependent, reproducible in animal models, and present after a short latency (hours to a few days). Hepatocellular necrosis caused by acetaminophen overdose is a typical example. However, the majority of drugs cause unpredictable liver disease, which is not usually dose dependent or reproducible in animal models. This type of liver injury occurs in only a small percentage of individuals (ranging from 0.01 to 1%) who use the drug but represents more than 10% of the cases of ALF. The two possible mechanisms for this unpredictable type of liver disease are as follows: (1) hypersensitivity reactions, which typically present with fever, rash, eosinophilia, an intermediate latency (1 to 6 weeks), and rapidly evolving liver injury upon rechallenge, and (2) metabolic idiosyncratic reactions, which present without hypersensitivity features and with variable latency (1 to 12 months). Drugs that can cause this type of liver disease are listed in Tables 119-1 and 119-2.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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