Diagnosis Antimitochondrial Antibodies

The identification of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as the serologic hallmark of PBC greatly improved the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this disease. These nonorgan-, nonspecies-specific antibodies are directed at the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase enzymes located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Using sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting, AMAs can be detected in 95% of patients with histologic and clinical features of PBC, and they are rarely associated with any other clinical condition. They may occasionally be found in otherwise clear-cut autoimmune hepatitis but, fortunately, are not seen with any other chronic cholestatic liver diseases. Along with AMAs, other laboratory features of PBC include elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase and y-glutamyl transpeptidase, a pattern typical of anicteric cholestasis, an elevated immunoglobulin (Ig)M, and high total cholesterol.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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