Don J SelzerMD and Keith D LillemoeMD

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported by Reddick in 1989, began a revolution in surgical practice. Improvements in video imaging and instrumentation, in addition to changing patient expectations, have fueled an explosion in the breadth, availability, and number of laparoscopic procedures. A videoscopic minimally invasive approach is available for treatment of diseases ranging from parathyroid adenoma to morbid obesity to varicose veins. Benefits of a laparoscopic approach over a traditional open technique include less pain, shorter hospital stay, faster return to activities of daily living, and improved cosmesis.

since the National institutes of Health consensus Statement in 1992, the laparoscopic approach has become the preferred technique for cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now the most commonly performed elective abdominal procedure in the United States. During the last decade, significant experience gained in preoper-ative selection, surgical technique, and intraoperative decision making has dramatically improved results. However, complications continue to occur and controversies remain. indications, surgical technique, and outcomes for laparo-scopic cholecystectomy are reviewed.

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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