Donald P KotlerMD and Irina KaplounovMD

Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and symptoms may arise at any time during the disease course (Kotler, 1991). GI symptoms diminish quality of life, may lead to progressive malnutrition, and be associated with increased mortality (Lubeck et al, 1993). Advances in the treatment of HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed for effective suppression of viral replication, often to undetectable levels, and immune reconstitution and spontaneous resolution of intestinal problems (Kotler et al, 1998; Palella et al, 1998). However, a substantial proportion of HIV-infected subjects are unaware of their infection status. Thus, HIV infection must now be included as part of the differential diagnosis of the causes of chronic diarrhea. In addition, some patients refuse to take HAART therapy, and antiviral drug resistance affects others. For these reasons, GI problems in HIV-infected patients continue to be seen. This chapter will discuss the diagnosis and management of GI and nutritional complications of HIV infection.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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