Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

This syndrome involves the development of hundreds to thousands of colorectal adenomas. Full genetic sequencing will detect pathogenic mutations in 80 to 90% of affected individuals. For individuals with familial adeno-matous polyposis (FAP) by clinical criteria or genetic analysis, annual or semi-annual flexible sigmoidoscopy should begin at age 10 to 12 years. Once polyps are discovered, prophylactic colectomy is usually required. If the rectum is retained, semiannual endoscopy is advised. Upper endoscopy is recommended every 1 to 4 years. If a family FAP mutation is identified, any biological relatives who have this mutation should undergo surveillance and/or surgery as described above. Those relatives without the family mutation are unaffected and can follow general population screening guidelines. However, it is recommended that they each undergo flexible sigmoidoscopy once at age 25 years as a safeguard. If genetic testing is inconclusive (no mutation is detected in an affected person or no affected person has undergone genetic testing), the individual should be screened as though affected.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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