General Principles

Clinical observations have identified several characteristics typical of GI complications in HIV infection. Multiple enteric complications may coexist, reaching almost one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with chronic diarrhea in one study. A single organism, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), may cause several different clinical syndromes, whereas many organisms can produce identical clinical syndromes, such as the malabsorption syndrome associated with intestinal protozoa. Disease complications of AIDS are notable for their chronicity, susceptibility to suppression, and resistance to cure, so that treatments must be given chronically. The specific pathogens may be typical for any one complication or related specifically to the immune deficiency.

Pathologic processes may affect the GI tract with either a focal or diffuse pattern. Focal ulcers may be found anywhere in the GI tract. They may be infectious, noninfec-tious, or neoplastic. Certain viral infections, such as CMV

infection, and fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, produce multifocal disease. The GI tract also can be involved diffusely. The most common diffuse lesion is can-didiasis of the oral cavity and/or the esophagus. Bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter may cause a diffuse colitis or enterocolitis.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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