Methodologic Validity

The clinician needs to consider three questions: Are the results of the trial valid (ie, is the methodology of the study appropriate for the type of trial), what are the results (ie, the degree and accuracy of the differences between approaches), and how will the results affect their practice (ie, are the clinician's patients similar to the patients in the study, and have all important outcomes been measured)? For a valid article about therapy, certain methodologic features should be present (see Table 1-1).


Patients with suspected condition

Diagnostic test

Gold standard test

Target disorder present

Target disorder absent




Eligible patients




Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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