Objectives of Colorectal Cancer Screening

There are two primary objectives of colorectal cancer screening. The first is to detect cancers that have already developed while they are still confined to the bowel and no lymph node or distant metastases yet have occurred. Studies indicate that the average surgical cure rate for such Dukes A and B cancers (Stage I and II) exceeds 85% (Mandel et al, 1993). Because most of these early, favorable cancers are asymptomatic, they must be detected by screening.

The second major objective of colorectal cancer screening is prevention. Studies now indicate that > 95% of col-orectal cancers originate in benign adenomatous polyps (adenomas) that develop and grow very slowly in the colon over many years before they turn cancerous (Bond, 2000). Detection and resection of premalignant polyps therefore prevent cancer, and this has become an objective of screening that is as important, or perhaps even more important, than just detecting early cancers. Studies, such as the National Polyp Study and the Minnesota Fecal Occult

Blood Screening Trial have demonstrated that when screening leads to resection of adenomas before they turn malignant, not only is cancer death prevented, but the incidence of colorectal cancer with its attendant morbidity and treatment costs also is substantially reduced (Winawer et al, 1993; Mandel et al,2000).

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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