Oral and Esophageal Disease

Candidiasis decreases taste sensation and affects swallowing, in addition to causing oral or substernal discomfort. Most cases are due to Candida albicans. Candidiasis in the esophagus and may occur in the presence or absence of thrush. Hairy leukoplakia, a hyperkeratotic lesion found along the sides of the tongue and adjacent gingiva, may be mistaken for Candida, but is asymptomatic. Severe gingivitis or peri-odontitis, infectious or idiopathic ulcers, or mass lesions, such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) or lymphoma, occur in the oral cavity and can cause pain or interfere with chewing and swallowing. The esophagus is affected by many of the same lesions as the oral cavity. Overall, studies have demonstrated a decline in the incidence of both oral and esophageal disease in subjects on HAART, with the possible exception of human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced lesions.

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